Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Handbook

— Biographies and Sources —


150 Psalms of David, Edinburgh, 1615



A Student’s Hymnal, 1923



Aaberg, Jens Christian, 1877-1970

Aaberg, author of Hymns and Hymnwriters of Denmark, 1945, and editor of Favored Hymns and Songs, 1961, translated some eighty hymns and songs from Danish and served on the committees which compiled the American Lutheran Hymnal, 1930; the Hymnal for Church and Home, 1927; the Junior Hymnal for Church and Home, 1932; and the revised Hymnal for Church and Home, 1928. Born November 8, 1877, in Moberg on the West coast of Denmark, he came to the United States in 1901. He went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, to join his brother who was then studying for the ministry at Augsburg College and Seminary. After attending St. Ansgar’s College, and Grand View College and Seminary in Des Moines, Iowa, 1904-1908, he was ordained to the ministry of the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. His first call was to Marinette, Wisconsin, after which he was pastor from 1912 to 1926 of St. Peder’s Lutheran Church, Dwight, Illinois. From 1926 until his retirement in 1946 he served in Minneapolis. He held various offices throughout the synod, and in 1947 received the Knight Cross of Denmark from King Frederick. In 1908 he was married to Elsie Cathrine Raun. He died June 22, 1970. [© Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship]

229. By Faith We Are Divinely Sure (Tr.)

243. The Power of Sin No Longer (Tr.)

529. Vain World, Now Farewell (Tr.)


Adam of St. Victor, d. 1172

ADAM OF ST. VICTOR. Although Adam of St. Victor was one of the most prolific of the Latin hymnists of the Middle Ages, very little is known of him. He is called “Brito” by those nearest his own epoch; but whether this indicates “Britain” or “Brittany” is uncertain. Adam was educated at Paris, and about 1130, when still quite a young man, he became a monk in the Abbey of St. Victor. The abbey was then in the suburbs, but afterwards, through the growth of Paris, it was included within the walls of that city. In this abbey, which was celebrated as a school of theology, Adam passed the whole rest of his life.—Adam of St. Victor had a facile pen and spent his life in study and authorship. It is quite probable that he was the author of many more than the numerous hymns and sequences which are definitely known to be his. He was the author of several prose works as well. His sequences, which were in manuscript, were destroyed at the dissolution of the Abbey of St. Victor in the Revolution, but 37 of them had already found their way into general circulation. These were published by Clichtoveus, a Roman Catholic theologian of the first half of the 16th century in his Elucidatorium Ecclesiasticum. Of the rest of the 106 hymns and sequences of his that we possess, the largest part—some 47 remaining unpublished—were removed to the National Library in the Louvre at Paris on the destruction of the abbey. There they were discovered by M. Leon Gautier, the editor of the first complete edition of them, Paris, 1858. Archbishop Trench, who published a selection of his poems in his Sacred Latin Poetry, says that Adam of St. Victor was “the foremost among the sacred poets of the Middle Ages.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

411. Christians, come in sweetest measures


Agricola, Johannes, 1494-1566

Johann Agricola (Johannes Eisleben) was born April 20, 1492, in Eisleben, where his father was employed as a tailor. At an early age he was sent to school at Brunswick. In 1515 he came to Wittenberg and was received by Luther, who became interested in the talented young man. He spent several years in Wittenberg and was admitted into the household of Luther, who also secured for him a teaching position at the university. He instructed a class in religion, for which purpose he prepared a catechism. In 1519 he accompanied Luther to the disputation with Dr. Eck at Leipzig, and it is claimed that Agricola was appointed to record the proceedings at this meeting. The same year he and Melanchthon received the degree of baccalaureus Bibliae at the University of Wittenberg. He was married in 1520 at Wittenberg. Luther, Melanchthon and other reformers were present at the wedding.

After ten years of service in Wittenberg, he was, through Luther’s influence, in 1525, given the position of rector of the school in Eisleben, an institution lately established by Count Albrecht of Mecklenburg. In connection with this position he should also serve as preacher and pastor of the church of St. Nicholas in Eisleben, and here he gathered a faithful congregation. He was, however, not content with his position at the school, and in 1526 he applied for a professorship at the university. But Melanchthon was chosen in preference to Agricola. Agricola was deeply offended. He was not only disposed to be irritable and vain, but overestimated his own importance.

His activity and behavior in later years was not altogether praiseworthy. It soon became apparent that he nourished a grudge against Melanchthon. The fact of the matter was, that Melanchthon and Luther had for some time observed with anxiety that as the Reformation progressed, many became followers for the simple reason that they wished to join the popular movement, and not out of personal conviction from the Word of God. Indeed, many preachers proclaimed salvation through faith alone, but this was often received as a mere external adherence to Reformation ideas, without particularly affecting the life of the people. Melanchthon, accordingly, issued a circular letter wherein he admonished the Lutheran preachers not only to preach on faith, but also to encourage people to the confession of sin, repentance, and conversion, and to dwell upon the commandments of the Law. The same thoughts were repeated in his articles of visitation in Saxony. Agricola criticized these very severely, and, at the same time, directed a violent accusation against Melanchthon personally, charging him with abandoning the doctrine of justification by faith alone, and that Melanchthon was influenced again by the doctrine of the “work-righteousness” of Catholicism. Luther sought to put an end to this controversy and at the meeting in Torgau silenced Agricola. There is very little information in regard to Agricola’s activity during the next few years, except that he fell out with Duke Albrecht and was dismissed by him July 27, 1536. Even the same day Agricola went to Wittenberg, where Luther, thinking that he had bettered his ways, received him and his family into his household, and called him into consultation on the Smalcald Articles. More over, the elector promised him an annual allowance for delivering certain lectures at the university.

But in 1537 Agricola appeared in public with his perverted doctrine on the Law and thereby began the Antinomian controversy. Luther conducted five disputations with him, 1537-38, and forced him to retract his false teachings, and Luther was authorized to draw up the statement of retraction for Agricola to sign. While this was going on he learned that Luther had censured him in a private letter to a friend, and in 1540 Agricola sent a complaint against Luther to the elector. The proceedings took a sad turn for Agricola, who was arrested and set free only upon the promise that he would not leave Wittenberg until the case had been tried and settled. Despite his promise he slipped away and came to Berlin. The elector Joachim II became his protector, appointed Agricola court preacher, and later superintendent.

From that time on Agricola opposed Luther and the other reformers, and later became the leader in the preparation and carrying out of the Augsburg Interim, which was chiefly a compromise between Catholicism and the Reformation and a denial of the fundamental principles of the Reformation. For this Agricola of course incurred the displeasure of the reformers. He died September, 1566. (H. Nutzhorn, from Herzog and Plitt). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

255. Lord, Hear the Voice of My Complaint


Ahle, Johann Rudolph, 1625-73

Johann Rudolph Ahle was born December 24, 1625, at Mühlhausen, Thuringia. He was educated at the universities of Göttingen and Erfurt. He was elected cantor at St. Andreas’s Church and director of the music school at Erfurt in 1646. Eight years later he was given the lucrative post as organist at St. Blasius’s Church, Mühlhausen, to succeed Johann Vockerrodt. In this town he became an influential citizen. He was elected to the town council in 1656 and made mayor in 1661. He died on July 8, 1673. — Ahle was a well-educated German organist and composer. While at Erfurt he became known as one of the most radical reformers of church music. He originated the “sacred aria.” He wrote over 400 spiritual songs for the different Sundays, festivals, and other special days in the calendar. Although florid writing was in vogue at the time, Ahle avoided polyphonic counterpoint and confined himself to the simple chorale style. Many songs of his are still popular in Protestant churches in England and America. Ahle’s son, Johann Georg Ahle, was also a composer of hymns and poet laureate to Emperor Leopold I. Ahle’s works include Compendium pro tonellis, 1648, a treatise on singing, and Neue Geistliche Arien, etc. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Albert, Heinrich, 1604-51

Heinrich Albert (Alberti) was born in Lobenstein, Germany, June 28, 1604. He studied jurisprudence in Leipzig, but later went to Dresden and studied music under his uncle, the noted Heinrich Schütz, “kapellmeister” at the court of Dresden. In 1626 he came to Königsberg, where he was appointed organist of the cathedral church in 1631. He was generally recognized and honored both as a poet and as a musician. He died in Königsberg, October 6, 1651. In his above mentioned publication are found 74 spiritual songs, 118 other poems, and 78 sacred melodies. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Heinrich Albert was born at Lobenstein, Voigtland, June 28, 1604. He intended to study law at Leipzig, but devoted himself entirely to music, studying under his uncle, Heinrich Schütz, the Court Capellmeister at Dresden, later also under Johann Stobäus. In 1631 he was appointed organist of the Cathedral at Königsberg in Prussia, whither he had gone in 1626. In 1636 he became a member of the Poetical Union of that city, together with Dach, Roberthin, and nine others. He died October 6, 1651. His hymns appeared in his Arien, etliche theils geistliche, theils weltliche, etc., published first in eight parts (1638–1650), then in collected form, Königsberg, 1652. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

77. God, who madest earth and heaven



Albinus, Johann Georg, 1624-79

Johann Georg Albinus, the oldest son of Zacharias Albinus, a pastor in Unter-Nessa, near Weissenfels, was born March 6, 1624. After the death of his father he was adopted by his cousin Lucas Pollio, a deacon of St. Nicholas’ church in Leipzig. After the latter’s death the court preacher, Sebastian Mitternacht of Naumburg, took care of him until he began his studies at the University of Leipzig, in 1645. During his eight years of study here he served as tutor in the home of Dr. F. Kühlwein, the mayor of the city. In 1653 he was called to become rector of the cathedral school in Naumburg. He held this position until the year 1657, when he became the pastor of St. Othmar’s church in the same city. Albinus was an industrious and devout pastor, but he was subjected to many difficulties on account of his physical weakness and because of the troubles within his church. On Sunday, May 25, 1679, he quietly passed away.

During his student days he was well known as a poet, and in 1654 became a member of the Fruitbearing Society. He wrote several hymns marked by their religious depth and harmony with the doctrine of Scripture. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ALBINUS, JOHANN GEORG, eldest son of Zacharias Albinus, a pastor, was born at Unter-Nessa, near Weissenfels, Saxony, March 6, 1624. After his father’s death, in 1635, he was adopted by a cousin, in 1638. This cousin was Lucas Pollio, diaconus at St. Nicholas Church in Leipzig. When Pollio died in 1643, the court preacher, Sebastian Mitternacht of Naumburg, took an interest in Albinus, who remained with him until he entered the University of Leipzig in 1645. While there, he became the house tutor to the burgomaster, Dr. Friedrich Kühlwein, and was later, in 1653, appointed rector of the Cathedral School at Naumburg. Four years later he resigned and became the pastor of St. Othmar’s Church in the same city. He was a zealous pastor, seeking ever “the glory of God, the edification of the church, and the everlasting salvation, well-being and happiness of his hearers.” He died on Rogate Sunday, May 25, 1679. As poet he was, says Koch, “distinguished by ease of style, force of expression, and liveliness of fancy, and his manner of thought was Scriptural and pervaded by deep religious spirit.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

454. Not in Anger, Mighty God

472. All men living are but mortal


Albrecht von Brandenburg, 1522-77

Albrecht von Brandenburg was born at Ansbach on March 28, 1522. He was the son of Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Culmbach in Lower Franconia. He was well educated by his uncle, Georg of Brandenburg. Later he became a soldier and was known as the “German Alcibiades.” Albrecht accompanied Charles V to his French War in 1544 and against the Smalkald Evangelical Union in 1546. In 1552 he joined the princes against the Emperor. Albrecht met Moritz of Saxony in the Battle of Lüneburg, July 9, 1553, at Sievershausen and was defeated. He met him again on June 13, 1554, at Brunswick and finally on June 13 at Eulenberg. Albrecht escaped to France with sixteen followers. He acknowledged God’s direction in his troubles and repented of his former errors. He returned to Regensburg and died at Pforzheim, repentant and firm in the faith, on January 8, 1557. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

477. The will of God is always best


Alderson, Eliza Sibbald (Dykes), 1818-89

Eliza Sibbald Alderson, sister of the famous Rev. J. B. Dykes, was born at Hull, August 16, 1818. In 1850 she was married to Rev. Mr. Alderson, chaplain to the West Riding House of Correction, Wakefield, 1833 to 1876. Her gift of poetry was secretly and carefully cultivated from early days, and she began when a young girl to write hymns for Sunday school festivals and missionary meetings in connection with St. John’s Church, Hull, where her grandfather, Rev. Thomas Dykes, was the vicar; but these early hymns are lost. Though she wrote many hymns, only 12 have been published, Twelve Hymns, by E. S. Alderson, neither date nor publisher’s name. For the last two or three years of her life she was an invalid, and died after much suffering at Heath, near Wakefield, March 18, 1889. (Hymns Ancient and Modern, His. Ed.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ALDERSON, ELIZA SIBBALD (DYKES) was the granddaughter of the Rev. Thomas Dykes of Hull and a sister of Dr. John B. Dykes. She was born in 1818, and in 1850 was married to Rev. W. T. Alderson, sometime chaplain to the West Riding Home of Correction, Wakefield, 1832–1876. She died in 1889 and was buried at Kirkthorpe. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

459 Lord of Glory, who hast bought us


Alexander, Cecil Frances (Humphreys), 1823-95

ALEXANDER, CECIL FRANCES (HUMPHREYS), the daughter of Major John Humphreys, was born in Ireland, 1823. In 1850 she married the Rt. Rev. Wm. Alexander, Bishop of Derry and Raphoe. She wrote The Burial of Moses, which Lord Houghton called the finest sacred lyric in the English language. She was the author of several books of poetry, among them: Verses for Holy Seasons, 1846; Hymns Descriptive and Devotional, 1858; and The Legend of the Golden Prayers, 1859. She died at Londonderry, October 12, 1895. Mrs. Alexander was the author of many hymns, several of which have been widely used, e. g., There is a green hill far away. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

139. Once in royal David’s city.


Alford, Henry, 1810-71

Henry Alford, D. D., was born in London, Oct. 7, 1810, and educated at Ilminster Grammar School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow in 1834. In 1857 he was appointed Dean of Canterbury. He died January 12, 1871, and was buried in the church yard of St. Martins. His tomb bears the beautiful inscription, in Latin: “The Inn of a Traveller on his Way to Jerusalem.” His hymnological and poetical works were numerous. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ALFORD, HENRY, the son of the Rev. Henry Alford, Rector of Aston Sandford, was born in London, October 7, 1810. He attended Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was graduated with honors in 1832. Principal among his many positions and attainments are: a Fellow of Trinity, Hulsean Lecturer (1841—42), and Dean of Canterbury (1857–1871). While still very young, he wrote several Latin odes, a history of the Jews, and a series of homiletic outlines. Perhaps his noblest undertaking was his edition of the Greek Testament, the result of twenty years’ labor. This book, which was the standard critical commentary in England of the later 19th century and philological rather than theological in character, introduced in comprehensive fashion the treasures of German linguistic and exegetic studies to those unfamiliar with German. He was a member of the New Testament Revision Committee. The Contemporary Review was his creation and was edited by him for a time. His hymnological and poetical works were numerous and included the compiling of collections, the composition of original hymns, and translations from other languages. As a hymn-writer he added little to his literary reputation. The rhythm of his hymns is musical. The poetry is characterized not so much by depth or originality as by freedom from affectation, obscurity, or bombast. His hymns are evangelical in their teaching but somewhat cold and conventional. Though not a sacramentarian, his views and hymns were distinctively liturgical. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

461            Come, ye thankful people, come

557            Ten thousand times ten thousand


Allen, F. D., New York Selections, 1822



Alte Catholische Kirchengeseng, Köln, 1599



Altenburg, Johann Michael, 1584-1640

Johann Michael Altenburg was born 1584, in Alach, near Erfurt. Having concluded his studies he was made teacher and precentor in Erfurt. In 1608 he became pastor of Ilversgehofen and Morbach; in 1611 in Trochtelborn; in 1620 in Gross-Sommern. All these places are in the neighborhood of Erfurt. During the war he fled to Erfurt. While there he heard the news of the victory at Leipzig September 7, 1631, and wrote this hymn, which is his best known production. In 1637 he became deacon of the church of St. Augustine, and the following year, pastor of St. Andrews of Erfurt, where he died, 1640. Altenburg was also a musician and composer. Landstad’s Hymnary does not contain Altenburg’s hymn, but it has been entered into the supplement to the American edition. It has been translated by Fr. Hammerich, a Danish professor, who died 1877. This fine Norwegian translation is found in Hauge’s Hymnal, in the hymn book of the former Norwegian Synod, and in Gustav Jensen’s Utkast til revideret salmebok for den norske kirke. The melody was originally used for a folksong: “Was wölln wir aber heben an.” As a hymn tune it was used for the first time in connection with a German hymn: Ain schöns neues christlichs lyed; item die, Zehen Gebot Gottes, 1530 (Nutzhorn). It has always been connected with the hymn, “Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn.” (Kom hid til mig enhver især, Landst. 576). The melody has found a place in nearly all the hymnals of the Northern countries. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ALTENBURG, JOHANN MICHAEL was born at Alach, near Erfurt, on Trinity Sunday, 1584. Educated at Erfurt, he was for some time teacher and precentor there. His pastoral charges included Ilversgehofen and Marbach, 1608, Trochtelborn, 1611, and Gross-Sommern, near Erfurt, in 1621. Here in Gross-Sommern this “devout, exemplary, and ingenious preacher” suffered many hardships during the Thirty Years’ War, which had just broken out. He was continually harassed by troops marching through, pressing the houses into service as their quarters, and plundering at will. At one time he was “host” to no fewer than 300 soldiers and horse. These troublous times finally forced him to flee to Erfurt in 1631 without as much as some bread to eat. Here on the news of the victory of Leipzig, September 17, 1631, and probably stimulated by Gustav Adolf’s password for the battle, he composed his best-known hymn. He retained his residence in Erfurt, where he died February 12, 1640. He was a good musician, composing tunes as well as writing hymns. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

375. O little flock, fear not the foe


Ambrose of Milan, 340-397

Ambrose of Milan is named as its author by Fulgentius, bishop of North Africa (d. 533), and also by Bede the Venerable (d. 735) in his Arte Metrica, and by Hincmar (857). The Ambrosian-Benedictian writers consider it genuine. It is named as one of the 12 hymns ascribed to Ambrosius. It was found in a manuscript from about 700 in the British Museum and in a large number of later manuscripts. It is found in almost all the breviaries of the Middle Ages. It has been discussed by Daniel, Mone, Wackernagel, by Cardinal Newman in his Hymni Ecclesiae, and others. It was used at matins and lauds on Mondays by Benedictines and others. There are 25 English translations extant. The version in The Lutheran Hymnary is by J. Chandler and dates from 1837. (For notes on Chandler, see No. 373.)

Ambrose, the famous Church Father (b. 340; d. 397), was educated in the statesmanship of Rome, and in the year 374 he was appointed “consul” of North Italy. In Milan, where he resided, he became a great favorite with the people. Soon after his arrival there the office of bishop became vacant, and he was chosen for this position, in spite of the fact that he was yet an unbaptized catechumen. In this connection an interesting story is told. A violent controversy arose between the Catholics (Niceans) and the Arians concerning the choice of bishop, and Ambrose happened to appear. A little child exclaimed: “Ambrose shall be our bishop!” The assembly joined in the outburst. Ambrose protested against this action, declaring that he could not accept the office and fled from the city during the night but he lost his way and without realizing it, he came back to Milan. This he interpreted as a warning signal from God, and to the great joy of his people he accepted the office of bishop. Having given away his property and accepted Baptism, he now undertook the arduous task of preparing himself for his new duties through intense study. Dr. Olrik claims that Ambrose never became a learned theologian, while the hymnologist, Julian, refers to him as being a very able and prominent theologian. We shall not touch upon this any further, but two episodes in his life should be mentioned, because they throw light upon his position and his personality. When Empress Justina, who favored the Arians, demanded that he should permit them to use the churches, he replied that he dared not turn over to them what God had entrusted to him. When an imperial messenger threatened him with death Ambrose gave him a proud reply. The next year he declined an invitation to come to the court to dispute with the Arians. He replied: “It does not behoove the emperor to be a judge of doctrine, nor the laity to sit in judgment in matters of faith.” Ambrose was fired with zeal in the cause of the ministry of the Church. In his opinion the Church stood infinitely superior to the state. The moral worth of the state was due exclusively to the fact that it was the servant of the Church. The emperor now proceeded to send an army against the church of Ambrose. But the congregation flocked about their beloved bishop who gathered them for prayer and hymn singing. Augustine has pictured the overwhelming effect of the hymn singing on this occasion, and Ambrose himself mentioned this incident in his letters. Even the soldiers outside of the church joined in the song. The court had to yield, and Ambrose remained in power.

A remarkable trait in the character of Ambrose is exhibited by the following incident. Emperor Theodosius had, during a riot in Thessalonica, been guilty of vicious cruelty and unnecessary shedding of blood. Ambrose sent the emperor a strong letter of reprimand and threatened to excommunicate him. When the emperor shortly afterwards came to the cathedral of Milan to take part in the worship, Ambrose met him at the door and denied him the right to enter the church until he had done penance for his crime. “Do you, who have been guilty of shedding innocent blood, dare to enter the sanctuary? Only after having through repentance and penance sought forgiveness and mercy, can you again with the congregation seek the blessing of the Lord and His Church.” The emperor went away, and at the following Christmas, eight months later, he came as a repentant and penitent sinner, returning to the church and was received by the bishop.

Ambrose became the father of hymn singing in the Western Church. His love for church songs was a direct fruit of his intense devotion to his work among his people. He knew nothing more beautiful than the blending of the voices of the congregation m the common song of praise and thanksgiving to God. He succeeded in combining the more melodious Greek song with the more stern form of the Western Church, and by introducing responsive singing he secured the active participation of the people in the worship. This he accomplished by arranging the hymns in various rhythms so that they became better adapted to the needs of the congregation. The effect of this Christian song which with its intense life and steadily increasing power rang out from the Church of Milan, was majestically unique and bore its influence out into wide circles. Ambrose says in one of his sermons: “It has been said that people are carried away through my hymns, and I admit it, because it is actually true.” It will be noticed that this statement strikingly resembles the testimony which was given to Lutheran hymnography at a later date.

Augustine, who with his mother Monica was present in the Church of Milan during the so-called “holy captivity” when many of the glorious hymns of Ambrose to the Trinity were sung, later describes the mighty impression made upon him through these hymns: “How mightily I was moved by the overwhelming tones of Thy Church, O my God! Thy voices flooded my ears, Thy truth melted my heart, the feeling of godliness burst forth, my tears flowed, a foretaste of salvation was accorded me.”

“In the hymns of Ambrose,” says W. Wolters, “the firmness, the dignified bearing, and well directed zeal of the Roman are combined in such a masterly manner that they have weathered the ravages of time better than the most impregnable strongholds. And, while they have exerted their influence on numerous poets and have at various times been subjected to changes in meter and rime, they have still remained throughout the many centuries the inviolable source of a sacred inheritance.” Ambrose occupies such a prominent position in the history of church song that the hymns patterned after his style and written in the same spirit and tone are commonly called Ambrosian hymns. Ancient hymnology reached its culmination through his work. (Skaar, Söderberg, and others.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

AMBROSE OF MILAN was the second son and third child of Ambrosius, Prefect of the Gauls, and was born at Lyons, Arles, or more probably Treves. In 353, after the death of the father the mother and children went to Rome. Here Ambrose received the usual education attaining considerable proficiency in Greek. He studied law, as his brother Satyrus had, and soon distinguished himself in the court of Probus, the Pretorian Prefect of Italy. In 374 he was appointed Consular of Liguria and Aemilia, which necessitated his residence in Milan. Soon after, Auxentius, the bishop, died. The church in which the election of the new bishop was being held was filled with excited people, and Ambrose himself exhorted them to peace and order. Suddenly a voice exclaimed,—it is said that it was that of a child,—”Ambrose be bishop!” Immediately the cry was taken up by the mob. Although as yet only a catechumen, Ambrose was then baptized, and a week later, on December 7, 374, was consecrated bishop. The death of Emperor Valentinian I in 375 brought Ambrose into collision with Justina, Valentinian’s second wife, an adherent of the Arian party. Ambrose was supported by Gratian, the elder son of Valentinian, and by Theodosius, whom Gratian in 379 associated with himself in the empire. Gratian was assassinated in 383 by a follower of Maximus, and Ambrose was sent to treat with the usurper, in which he was fairly successful. But now Ambrose had to carry on against the Arians and the empress alone. Justina had to flee before the advance of Maximus on Milan and died in 388. Either in this year or the one previous Ambrose received the great scholar Augustine, once a Manichean heretic, into the church by baptism. Theodosius was now virtually head of the Roman Empire. In 390 a riot at Thessalonica caused him to give a hasty order for a general massacre at that city, and his command was but too faithfully obeyed. Ambrose refused Theodusius admittance to church until he had done penance for his crime. Only eight months afterward did the Emperor declare his penitence. Theodosius defeated the murderer of Valentinian in 394, and soon after the fatigues of the campaign brought his death. Ambrose preached his funeral sermon, as he had that of Valentinian. The loss of these two friends was a severe blow to Ambrose, and after two more unquiet years he died on Easter Eve, 397. Ambrose was great as a scholar, an organizer, a statesman, a theologian, and as a musician and poet. As a hymn-writer Ambrose indeed deserves special honor. Grimm correctly calls him “the father of church song.” Catching the impulse from Hilary and confirmed in it by the success of Arian psalmody, he introduced the practice of antiphonal chanting and began the task, which St. Gregory completed, of systematizing the music of the Church. As a writer of sacred poetry Ambrose is remarkable for depth and severity. He does not warm with his subject. “We feel,” says Archbishop Trench, “as though there were a certain coldness in his hymns and aloofness of the author from his subject.” He was not the author of the Te Deum. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

81  O splendor of God’s glory bright

90  Savior of the nations come (Come, Thou Savior of our race*)

487            O Jesus, Lord of heavenly grace

574            O Trinity, most blessed Light


American folk tune



Ämilie Juliane, 1637-1706

Ämilie (Emilie, Æmilie) Juliane of Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt was a daughter of Count Albert Friedrich of Barby and Mühlingen. During the Thirty Years’ War her father and his family were compelled to seek refuge in the castle of Heidecksburg, which belonged to his uncle, Count Ludwig Günther of Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, and there Emilie was born in 1637. Her father died in 1641. In 1542 her mother died also, and the little girl was adopted by her aunt, the wife of Count Ludwig. She was brought up at Rudolstadt together with her cousins (see also Vol. II, No. 353). Emilie was married to her cousin Albert Anton, 1665, and died in 1706. She has written over 600 hymns and spiritual songs. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ÄMILIE JULIANE, Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1637–1706), was the daughter of Count Albert Friedrich of Barby and Mühlingen. She was born August 16 1637, at Heidecksburg, the castle of her father’s uncle, Count Ludwig Günther of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, where her father and family had to seek refuge during the Thirty Years’ War. After the death of her father (1641) and mother (1642) Ämilie Juliane was adopted by her aunt, who was also her godmother and had become the wife of Count Ludwig Gunther. Ämilie Juliane was educated at Rudolstadt with he cousins under the care of Dr. Ahasuerus Fritsch and other teachers. On July 7, 166 she was married to her cousin, Albert Anton. She was the most productive of German female hymn-writers, some 600 hymns being attributed to her. Her hymns are full] of a deep love for her Savior. She published Geistliche Lieder, etc., Rudolstadt, 1683; Kuhlwasser in grosser Hitze des Creutzes, Rudolstadt, 1685; Tägliches Morgen- Mittags- und Abendopfer, Rudolstadt, 1685. She died December 3, 1706. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

71  The Lord hath helped me hitherto

483            Who knows when death may overtake me?


Andächtige Haus-Kirche, Nürnberg, 1676



Ander Theil Des Dresdenischen Gesang Buchs, 1632

134            Let us all with gladsome voice



Ander Theil Des … Gesangbuchs, Stralsund, 1665



Anna Sophia of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1638-83

Anna Sophia, daughter of Landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born December 17, 1638, in Marburg. She received a good Christian education and gained a thorough knowledge of the Holy Scriptures and the Church Fathers. The thirty-two hymns written by her are permeated with an intense love for the Savior. They were published in Der Treue Seelen-Freund Christus Jesus mit nachdenklichen Sinn-Gemählden, anmuthigen Lehr-Gedichten, und neuen geistreichen Gesängen, abgedruckt und vorgestellet, Jena, 1658. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ANNA SOPHIA OF HESSE-DARMSTADT was the daughter of the Landgrave Georg II of Hesse Darmstadt and was born at Marburg, December 17, 16 She was carefully educated in the Holy Scriptures and the Church Fathers. She was elected Propstin of the Lutheran Fürstentochter-Stift at Quedlinburg in 1657. She became abbess of the Stift in 1680 and died December 13, 1683. Her hymns show an intense love for the Savior and mostly appeared in her Der treue Seelenfreund, etc. Jena, 1658. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

230. Speak, O Lord, Thy servant heareth



tr. 68, 316, 317

12, 47, 164, 394, 484, 549

12  Come, Thou almighty King

484            Christ alone is our salvation

549            O God, our Lord, Your holy Word


Anthes, Friedrich Konrad, 1812-after 1857

ANTHES, FRIEDRICH KONRAD was bom at Weilburg in Nassau May 2, 1812, son of the seminary professor Johann Adam Anthes. He studied theology and became first “Hilfsgeistlicher” at Herborn and later pastor at Haiger E. Ackerbach. Poor health forced him to retire in 1857, and he seems to have spent the remainder of his life at Wiesbaden. He wrote Die Tonkunst im evangelischen Kultus, Wiesbaden, 1846, and Allgemeine fassliche Bemerkungen, etc., Wiesbaden, 1846. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Antiphoner, Paris, 1681

76, 548


Aquinas, Thomas, 1227-74

Thomas Aquinas, Thomas of Aquino, Doctor Angelicus, as he was called, was born 1227 at the castle Rocca Sicca, near the city Aquino, which was on the border between Naples and the Papal States. His father was Landulf, Count of Aquino. He was a nephew of Emperor Frederick I, and his mother was a rich Neapolitan countess. At the age of five years he was sent to the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino for his early training. He remained here seven years, after which he was sent to Naples to the university. Already as a child he attracted attention by his talents and deep piety. While in Naples he came under the influence of the teachers in the Dominican order and decided to enter this order. At the time when he sought to enter he was seventeen years old. His mother, who is characterized by Bishop Skaar as “a pious woman who with great care nursed the spark of spiritual life which had been implanted in him,” was opposed —as were the rest of the family—to this decision. They followed him, when he, on account of fear of his family’s wrath, fled towards Paris. At his mother’s suggestion he was captured, brought back, and held a captive for two years. It is told that his older and warlike brothers, urged by the “pious mother,” debased themselves so as to use any means whatsoever to turn his mind and heart from religion. Pope Innocent IV was instrumental in getting Emperor Frederick to step in and arrange some kind of a reconciliation. Then Thomas Aquinas returned to Naples. Later he was sent by his “Order” to Rome, then to Paris, and finally to Cologne, where he studied under the famous Albertus Magnus, who took him to the University of Paris. There he studied for three years and received the degree of bachelor of theology. He was appointed—then only 23 years old—professor in the newly established Dominican school at Cologne during the reign of Albertus Magnus. He taught, wrote, and preached to great multitudes. In 1248 he received orders to go to Paris again, this time to be examined for the degree of doctor of theology. Reluctantly he obeyed the request. Bashful and humble as he was, he shrank from thus seeking honor and distinction. But he went, begging his way. In addition to his studies he continued here industriously to write, deliver lectures, and preach. “No auditorium was large enough to admit all those who wished to hear him.” Louis IX appointed him member of parliament. He was then 32 years old. Not before 1257 did he receive his doctor’s degree. Pope Urban IV and later Clement IV offered him the highest honors (cardinal, archbishop, patriarch of Jerusalem), but he did not accept them. He was very much in demand as papal counselor and as leader in important commissions of the church. He was teacher in theology in the Dominican school at Rome, and besides delivered many lectures in various places. In 1272 he came to Naples to lecture at the university. He was given a royal reception by all. He remained here until 1274, when he received orders from Pope Gregory X to attend the second council of Lyons. On the way there he was taken ill and died March 7, 1274, barely 48 years old. He was a prolific author. His greatest work is his “Summa Theologiae.” “Thomas Aquinas was a man of thought, reflection, and prayer, filled with the conviction that through that light must be lit which should be a light for the spirit when the mysteries of the heavenly things should be searched out. When he, during his deep searching, could find no solution, he would fall on his knees and pray God for enlightenment. When he felt a warmth of encouragement in his heart he would continue his investigation. As a zealous and simple preacher he became very highly noted.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

321        Zion, to thy Savior singing


Arends, Wilhelm Erasmus, 1677-1721

Wilhelm Erasmus Arends was born February 5, 1677, in Langenstein. In 1707 he became pastor of Crottorf, near Halberstadt, and in 1718 was appointed to the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Halberstadt, where, however, his service was cut short by death in 1721. He also wrote two other hymns, which were published in Freylinghausen’s book mentioned above.[Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Arends, Wilhelm Erasmus was the son of a pastor at Langeste near Halberstadt, where he was born on February 5, 1677. In 1707 he became pastor at Crottorf, near Halberstadt, and in 1718 pastor of the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Halberstadt, where he died, May 16, 1721. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

518.       Rise! To arms! With prayer employ you


Arneson, Ole T. (Sanden), 1853-1917

Ole T. (Sanden) Arneson was born near Highlandville, Iowa, on May 4, 1853. He attended the Winona Normal School, Winona, Minnesota. From 1876 to 1879 he was principal of the public school at Spring Grove, Minnesota, and then for a time as teacher at Hatton, North Dakota. After working first as mailing clerk, then as shipping clerk, he became the manager of the book department of Skandinaven, Chicago. Arneson translated many hymns and other poems from the Norwegian. He died June 3, 1917. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

O blessed home, where man and wife. (Tr.)

tr. 189, 418, 575


Arrebo, Anders Christensen, 1587-1637

Anders Christensen Arrebo was born June 2nd, 1587, at Æreskøbing, where his father was pastor. Nothing is known about his early childhood and school days. We can infer that he possessed unusual gifts and ability from the fact that he became the palace chaplain in Copenhagen at the age of 21. In 1610 he took the master’s degree and became palace chaplain in 1613 at Frederiksborg, and then called as parish pastor to Nicolai church in Copenhagen in 1616. He did not remain here long, however, since he was called as bishop in March, 1618, to the diocese of Trondhjem. He was now 31 years old. Young and spirited as he was, he did not guide his actions into proper channels. He was very careless in his speech and life, and because he had a bitter enemy in a Danish official, who lay in wait for him and placed the worst construction on all he did, a complaint was started against him and he was accordingly removed from office in Bergen, 1622. He settled in Malmø, and the following year rendered the preparation of David’s Psalms, which, no doubt, were mostly composed in Norway, where the greatest number of them were circulated.

Kong Davids Psalmer sangvis udsat appeared in 1623 and is dedicated to the higher and lower clergy of Norway, to whom he wanted to extend a token of thankfulness for brotherly favor and fellowship as well as for other benefits.

The second edition of this work appeared in 1627, the third in 1650, the fourth in 1664, and the fifth about 1673.

In 1626 he was called as parish pastor to Vordingborg, where he labored until his death, in 1637. He was honored and loved by his congregation.

His tombstone bears the inscription found in Rom. 8:33, 34. While he was pastor in Vordingborg, he completed another great work entitled Hexaemeron, i. e., the world’s first week, six days of splendid and mighty deeds. This was a free rendering of a work by the French poet Bartas, a poem about the same theme. This appeared first in 1661.

Both of these made him an object of great admiration among his contemporaries. It should be remembered that Arrebo paved the way for later hymn writers. Without him, Kingo and other contemporaries would hardly have reached the point they actually did. The later ages that have benefited by his great contributions have not without ground referred to him as, “The father of Danish poetry.” He was the first to submit the Danish language to an artistic usage. Concerning his works Rudelbach says: “Arrebo strived to express every spiritual thought and word, as well as every original tone of the hymns. This renders his work of the highest value. No one since Luther who has sought to appropriate David’s and Asaph’s words and meanings has attained to the rank of Arrebo.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Anders Christensen Arrebo is often referred to as “the father of Danish poetry,” for it was he who paved the way for later hymn-writers, such as Kingo and his contemporaries. He was born June 2, 1587, at Aereskobing, Denmark, where his father was pastor. Little is known about his early childhood. He became court chaplain in Copenhagen at twenty-one. He took his master’s degree in 1610 and became palace chaplain in Frederiksborg. In 1616 he was called as parish pastor to the Nicolai Church in Copenhagen. In 1618 he was called as bishop to the diocese of Trondheim, being at the time only thirty-one years of age. Unfortunately he did not guide his actions and speech properly, making an enemy of a Danish official, who had him removed from office in 1622. He settled in Malmø and began the preparation of Kong Davids Psalmer sangvis udsat, which appeared in 1623, dedicated to the clergy of Norway, in order to demonstrate his appreciation for benefits received. This book went through five editions from 1623 until 1673. He himself spent the remaining years of his life, from 1626 until his death in 1637, as parish pastor in Vordingborg. Before his death he completed another great work, Hexaemeron, or “the world’s first week, six days of splendid and mighty deeds,” which first appeared in 1661. It was a free rendering of a work by the French poet Du Bartas.

Arrebo was the first to submit the Danish language to an artistic usage. Of his works Rudelbach says: “Arrebo strove to express every spiritual thought and word as well as every original tone of the hymns. This renders his work of the highest value. No one since Luther who has sought to appropriate David’s and Asaph’s words and meanings has attained to the rank of Arrebo.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

365. O sing with exultatlon

368. The Lord My Faithful Shepherd Is


Arthur, John W., 1922-80

John W. Arthur was born March 25, 1922, in Mankato, Minnesota, and received both Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Music degrees from Gustavus Adolphus College in 1944. From January to September of that year he also studied at Wartburg Theological Seminary. He completed a Bachelor of Divinity degree at Augusutana Theological Seminary and was ordained in 1946 as pastor of Zion Lutheran Church, Duquesne, Pennsylvania. In 1949 he completed a Master of Theology degree at Western Theological Seminary (Pittsburgh Theological Seminary) and began six years of service at an Augustana Board of American Missions congregation, St. Paul Lutheran Church, Floral Park, Queens, New York. From 1957 to 1958 he was Lutheran Campus Pastor at Stanford University and San Jose State College in California, and from 1958 to 1960, part-time executive director of the Lutheran Student Foundation of Northern California. Between 1960 and 1967 he was Western Regional Secretary for the Division of College and University Work of the National Lutheran Council, and also served as an unpaid assistant pastor of First Evangelical Lutheran Church, Palo Alto, California. During this time also, in 1964 and 1965, he studied at Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary and Stanford University. He was appointed assistant professor of liturgics and director of worship at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago in 1967, and from 1970 to 1976 was pastor of First Lutheran Church, Palo Alto. Ill health forced his retirement in 1976, and he died August 15, 1980, at Palo Alto. [© Hymnal Companion to the Lutheran Book of Worship]

359            This is the feast (based on Dignus est Agnus)


As hymnodus sacer, Leipzig, 1625

A collection of twelve hymns published by Christian Galb, 1625.






Augustine of Hippo, 354-430

425. Light of the Minds


Babst Gesangbuch, 1545

Valentin Babst’s Gesangbuch, published in 1545 with a preface written by Luther.

337. Our Blessed Savior Seven Times Spoke (setting)


Bach, Johann Christoph, 1642-1703

Johann Christoph Bach was the son of Heinrich Bach, of Arnstadt, and was born Dec. 8, 1642. “He was a highly gifted musician, and through his own merit alone, independent of his illustrious nephew (Johann Sebastian Bach) he occupies a very prominent place in musical history. In 1665 he became organist at Eisenach. Later he became court organist there, and died March 31, 1703. His most important compositions are his motets, of which many have been lost” (Grove’s Dictionary). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Johann Christoph Bach was born in Arnstadt, the eldest son of Heinrich Bach.

He was a second cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach. He became organist at Eisenach in 1665 and appears to have remained there until his death There is some evidence that seems to indicate that he became court organist in 1678 Bach specialized in vocal music and is considered an excellent composer. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Bach, Johann Sebastian, 1685-1750

was a member of the most famous musical family in history. He was born in Eisenach and received his early musical training at home by his father and eldest brother. He attended the schools of Ohrdruf and Lüneburg and at the age of eighteen had already obtained an enviable reputation as a composer, organist, and violinist. After serving for a while as organist at Arnstad and Mühlhausen, he was court organist and violinist at Weimar for nine years and in 1717 accepted the appointment as Kapellmeister at Anhalt Cothen. He finally settled at Leipzig in 1723 as cantor of the famous St. Thomas’s School and director o music in the St. Thomas’s and St. Nicholas’s churches, where his original composition were first produced in the regular services. Comparable to Palestrina in the Roma] Church, Bach wrote numerous cantatas and many motets, masses, and harmonization of old German chorales which have earned him the affection and admiration of th whole Christian and musical world. His immortal B Minor Mass and the St.Matthew and St. John Passions remain unsurpassed as combinations of the emotional and intel lectual, the mystic and energetic, in devotional music. Called “the father of modern music,” Bach certainly gave a direction to all the music of his age, for which th Church must be eternally grateful. Schumann said of him: “To him music owe almost as great a debt as a religion owes its founder.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]





129, 158

setting: 47, 118, 124, 172, 272, 276, 329, 335, 472, 477, 492, 530, 544, 569, 584, 596


Backer, Bruce R., b. 1929



Bahnmaier, Jonathan Friedrich, 1774-1841

Jonathan Friedrich Bahnmaier, son of the pastor, J. C. Bahnmaier, Württemberg, was born July 12, 1774. He was educated at Tübingen, and in 1798 became his father’s assistant. Later he served as deacon of Marbach on the Neckar, and moved in 1810 to Ludwigsburg, where he superintended a school for young women. In 1815 he was appointed professor of education and homiletics at Tübingen, but soon after had to resign from this position. In 1819 he became deacon and town preacher of Kirchheim-unter-Teck, where he rendered faithful and able service for 21 years.

Bahnmaier was an able preacher and intensely interested in the development of schools and missions. He was a member of the hymnary committee which prepared the Württemberg Gesangbuch, 1842. He delivered his last sermon in Kirchheim on the Tenth Sunday after Trinity, August 15, 1841. Two days later he conducted visitation services in Owen, and, while visiting the school in a nearby village, he was stricken with heart failure and brought back to Owen, where he died August 18, 1841. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Jonathan Friedrich Bahnmaier was the son of J. C. Bahnmaier the town preacher at Oberstenfeld, Wurttemberg, and was born there on July 12, 1774. Bahnmaier studied theology at Tübingen, and his first charge was that of assistant to his father. He became Diaconus at Marlbach on the Neckar in 1806 and at Ludwig burg in 1810, where he for a time headed a young ladies’ school. In 1815 he was appointed Professor of Education and Homiletics at Tubingen, only to resign a few years later. In 1819 he was appointed Decan and Town Preacher at Kirchheim unter-Teck, where he labored for twenty-one years. Bahnmaier distinguished himself as a preacher and was greatly interested in education, missions, and Bible society He was one of the principal members of the comrnittee which compiled the Württemberg Gesang-Buch, 1842. He preached his last sermon at Kirchheim on August: 1841. He was stricken by paralysis while visiting a school at Brucker and died a few days later, August 18, 1841. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

201. Spread, O spread, thou mighty Word


Bajus, John, 1901-71

John Bajus, son of John Bajus and Mary, née Petras, was born April 5, 1901, at Raritan, New Jersey. He graduated at Concordia Institute, Bronxville, New York, 1921; and Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, 1925. He has been pastor of the Granite City-West Frankfort-Staunton, Illinois, parish, 1925–1943, and of Zion Chicago, 1943— . A charter member of the Slovak Luther League, organized 1927 he was its president, 1928–1930, its field secretary, 1928–1930 and 1933–1935-and the first editor of its Courier, 1929–1946. Since 1949 he has been First Vice-President and Statistician of the Slovak Ev. Lutheran Church. He is a member of the Inter-synodical Committee on Hymnology and Liturgics for the Synodical Conference. He has achieved recognition as a translator of Slovak hymns and poems. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

285. Jesus Christ, our Lord most holy. (Tr.)


Baker, Henry Williams, 1821-77

Sir Henry Williams Baker, baronet, oldest son of Admiral Sir Henry Lorraine Baker, was born in London, May 27, 1821, and received his education in Trinity College, Cambridge. He was ordained to the ministry in 1844, and in 1851 became vicar of Monkland, Herefordshire, where he labored until his death, February 12, 1877. Sir Henry Baker’s name is especially connected with the famous work on hymnology, Hymns Ancient and Modern. This work contains 33 of Baker’s own hymns. He was the chairman of the committee that prepared the first edition of this work, 1861, and continued incessantly, through a period of 20 years, in the work of revising and perfecting the editions for publication in 1868 and in 1875. Baker also prepared Hymns for the London Mission, 1874, and Hymns for the Mission Services, 1876. Baker’s hymns enjoy a high rank. His style is clear and simple. There are no affected expressions, no bombastic phrases. His hymns are characterized by deep earnestness, dignity of expression, and smooth rhythm. His poetic genius has much in common with Lyte’s. Just before breathing his last, he recited the third stanza of his beautiful hymn, “The King of Love my Shepherd”: Perverse and foolish oft I strayed, But yet in love He sought me, And on His shoulders gently laid, And home, rejoicing, brought me.

He has also composed a number of church melodies. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Sir Henry Williams Baker, the eldest son of Admiral Sir Henry Loraine Baker, was born in London 1821. He received his middle name from his mother’s father, William Williams. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated B. A. in 1844 and M. A. in 1847. In 1846 he was ordained priest and was appointed the Vicar Monkland, Herefordshire, in 1851 and succeeded to the baronetcy in the same year. He held this benefice until his death in 1877. His last words were the third stanza of his exquisite rendering of the 23d Psalm, “The King of Love my Shepherd is”:

Perverse and foolish, oft I strayed.

But yet in Love He sought me

And on His shoulder gently laid

And home, rejoicing, brought me.

The tender sadness, brightened by a soft, calm peace, of this stanza is an epitome of Baker’s poetical style. Baker wrote 33 hymns. He is usually compared with Henry Francis Lyte (q. v.). During his lifetime Baker worked arduously as the editor of Hymns Ancient and Modern. The first edition appeared in 1861, an appendix in 1868, a revised edition in 1875, a complete edition in 1889, and a recent revision in 1904. Benson writes in The English Hymns that Hymns Ancient and Modern spread “not only high-church views and practices but the high-church atmosphere beyond the sphere of hymnody.” Its publication ranks as “one of the great events in the history of the hymnody of the English-speaking churches.” Baker also published Daily Prayers for the Use of Those who Work Hard; a Daily Text Book, etc. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

Sir Henry Williams Baker, baronet, oldest son of Admiral Sir Henry Lorraine Baker, was born in London, May 27, 1821, and received his education in Trinity College, Cambridge. He was ordained to the ministry in 1844, and in 1851 became vicar of Monkland, Herefordshire, where he labored until his death, February 12, 1877. Sir Henry Baker’s name is especially connected with the famous work on hymnology, Hymns Ancient and Modern. This work contains 33 of Baker’s own hymns. He was the chairman of the committee that prepared the first edition of this work, 1861, and continued incessantly, through a period of 20 years, in the work of revising and perfecting the editions for publication in 1868 and in 1875. Baker also prepared Hymns for the London Mission, 1874, and Hymns for the Mission Services, 1876. Baker’s hymns enjoy a high rank. His style is clear and simple. There are no affected expressions, no bombastic phrases. His hymns are characterized by deep earnestness, dignity of expression, and smooth rhythm. His poetic genius has much in common with Lyte’s. Just before breathing his last, he recited the third stanza of his beautiful hymn, “The King of Love my Shepherd”: Perverse and foolish oft I strayed, But yet in love He sought me, And on His shoulders gently laid, And home, rejoicing, brought me.

He has also composed a number of church melodies. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]


370. The King of Love My Shepherd Is

453. Out of the deep I call


Balle, C. C. N., 1806-55


setting: 150


Baring-Gould, Sabine, 1834-1924

Sabine Baring-Gould was born January 28, 1834, at Exeter, England. He received his academic training at Clare College, Cambridge (B. A., 1854; M. A., 1856.—Julian has 1857 and ‘60). Being ordained to the ministry in 1864, he served first as curate of Horbury, and while in this position conducted the mission in the Horbury Bridge district. In 1866 he was appointed “perpetual curate” of Dalton, Yorkshire. In 1871 he became rector of East Mersea, Essex, and in 1881, rector of Lew Trenchard, Devon. Many of his hymns have entered into the leading hymnals throughout the English-speaking countries. Besides the present hymn, the well-known “Onward, Christian Soldiers” was also written for the children of Horbury Bridge. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Sabine Baring-Gould was born at Exeter, January 28, 1834. During his youth he lived much in Germany and France. He was graduated from Cambridge in 1854, ordained in 1861, and became curate at Horbury, 1864, serving also the mission at Horbury Bridge. In 1867 he was transferred to Dalton, and in 1871 he became rector of East Mersea, Colchester. When he succeeded his father in the estate at Lew Trenchard, Devon, he exercised his privilege as squire and patron by appointing himself as rector there. Here he died in 1924. His energy and industry were inexhaustible and is said to have more works attached to his name in the catalog of the British Museum than any writer of his time. His writings cover the fields of biography, travel, history, fiction, poetry, and song. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

560            Now the day is over


Barnard, Charlotte A., 1830-69

Charlotte Alington Barnard was born December 23, 1830 in London England. She used the pseudonym Claribel. She died January 30, 1869 in Brocklesbury, England. [The Cyber Hymnal]

300. BROCKLESBURY (Sweet the moments)


Barnby, Joseph, 1838-96

Sir Joseph Barnby was born August 12, 1838, in York, England. His father, Thomas Barnby, was an organist. While a boy, Joseph became chorister of York Minster, and later on he entered the Royal Academy of Music, London. For nine years he served as organist of St. Andrew’s, London, and directed the Barnby Choir. Later he had charge of the oratorio concerts; was director of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society, and also in charge of the music department of Eton College, 1875. Barnby has composed an oratorio, Rebekah, and a cantata, The Lord is King, besides a large number of other compositions. He has written 246 hymn tunes and edited many hymnals, among which ought to be mentioned The Hymnary. Barnby died in London, 1896. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Joseph Barnby was born in York, England, August 12, 1838; entered York Minster Choir at seven, began to teach other boys at ten, was appointed organist at twelve, music master at fifteen, and at length became choral director of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society. He was knighted in 1892. He was musical editor of The Hymnary. In 1897 his 246 hymn tunes were published in a collection. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




85, 191, 458, 560


Barnes, Edward Shippen, 1887-1958

setting: 116


Bartels, Harry, b. 1929

39  Whoever would be saved

355            Now Christ is risen!

tr. 166, 320



Barthélémon, François Hippolyte, 1741-1808

The melody (Morning Hymn, or Magdalene) is composed by François H. Barthélémon (1741-1808) for The Female Orphan’s Asylum and appeared first in 1785. Barthélémon, who was a composer and violinist in France, first came to England on a visit in 1765. Later he took up his residence there. He died in 1808. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

François Hippolyte Barthélémon was born in Bordeaux, July 27, 1741, the son of a French government officer and an Irish lady. He entered the army and became an officer in Berwick’s regiment in the Irish Brigade. He was induced by the Earl of Kellie to leave the army and take up music as his profession. In 1765 Barthélémon came to England after successful tours as a concert violinist and was appointed leader of the band at the opera and in 1770 at Marylebone Gardens. He wrote very little church music, occupying himself chiefly with music for the theater and the public gardens. Barthélémon was a member of the Swedenborgian Church. He suffered a great deal of misfortune in his old age and died a broken-hearted paralytic, July 20, 1808. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Bathurst, William Hiley, 1796-1877

William Hiley Bathurst was born August 28, 1796, in Clevedale, near Bristol. His father, the Rt. Hon. Charles Bragge (later Bathurst), was for some time member of parliament from Bristol. William Bathurst was educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford (B. A., 1818). From 1820 until 1852 he served as rector of the Episcopal Church of Barwick-in-Elmet, near Leeds. In 1852 he resigned from the ministry on account of doctrinal differences. He died in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, November 25, 1877. Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use contains 141 metrical versions of the Psalms of David and 206 original hymns. Among his other publications may be mentioned: The Georgics of Virgil; Metrical Musings, or Thoughts on Sacred Subjects in Verse. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

William Hiley Bathurst was the son of the Rt. Hon. Charles Bragge (afterwards Bathurst), sometime M.P. for Bristol. Bathurst’s name is often given as Bragge-Bathurst. He was born at Clevadale, near Bristol, August 28, 1796. His mother was Charlotte Addington; her mother’s name was Hiley. Bathurst was educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, graduating as B. A. in 1818. In 1819 he was ordained deacon and in the following year priest. In 1820 he was presented by his kinsman, Henry, Third Earl of Bathurst, to the Rectory of Barwick-in-Elmet, Yorkshire, and continued there as rector for thirty-two years. In 1852 he resigned the rectory because of conscientious scruples in relation to parts of the baptismal and burial services in the Book of Common Prayer. He retired into private life and first lived at Darley Dale, near Matlock, Derbyshire, where for eleven years he gave himself to literary pursuits. In May, 1863, he came into possession of his father’s estate when his elder brother died without heirs. He moved to Lydney Park soon afterward and there died on November 25, 1877.

During his early years of ministry Bathurst composed hymns and versified a large portion of the psalms. These were published, 1830, in a small volume entitled Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use. All but 18 of the 150 psalms and all of the 206 hymns in this volume are his. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

364            O for a faith that will not shrink


Beck, Theodore A. b. 1929

setting: 101, 204


Becker, Bruce W., 1995



Beddone, Benjamin, 1717-95

Benjamin Beddome was born January 23, 1717, at Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire, England. He was the son of Baptist minister John Beddome. He was apprenticed to a surgeon in Bristol, but moved to London in 1839 and joined the Baptist church in Prescott Street. At the call of his church, he devoted himself to the work of Christian ministry, and in 1740 began to preach at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire. For many years he was one of the most respected Baptist ministers in western England. He was also a man of some literary culture. In 1752, he wrote Exposition of the Baptist Catechism. In 1770, Beddome received a MA degree from Providence College, Rhode Island.

It was Beddome’s practice to write a hymn weekly for use after his Sunday morning sermon. Though not originally intended for publication, he allowed 13 of these to appear in the Bristol Baptist Collection of Ash & Evans (1769), and 36 in Rippon’s Selections (1787). In 1817, a posthumous collection of his hymns was published, containing 830 pieces. Robert Hall wrote of Beddome’s hymns:

“The man of taste will be gratified with the beauty and original turns of thought which many of them exhibit, while the experimental Christian will often perceive the most secret movements of his soul strikingly delineated, and sentiments portrayed which will find their echo in every heart.”

He died September 23, 1795, at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England. [The Cyber Hymnal]


231        When Israel through the desert passed


Bede, The Venerable, 673-735

was born near the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, which were founded by Benedict Biscop. Bede’s parents died when he was yet quite young, and so he studied at both monasteries under the tutelage of E;Benedict and later under Coelfrith, Benedict’s successor. At nineteen he was ordained a deacon by St. John of Beverley. Ten years later he received his priest’s orders from the same prelate. Bede’s whole life was spent in study; he divided his time between The two monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow. At the latter monastery, Bede, the scholar, grammarian, philosopher, poet, biographer, historian, and divine, died on May 26, 735. In the 11th century his remains were removed to Durham and reinterred in the same coffin as those of St. Cuthbert. Bede was a voluminous author on almost every subject. He translated part of the Bible into Anglo-Saxon. As historian his contribution to English history, the Historia Ecclesiastica, is invaluable. Among his works Bede lists a Liber Hymnorum. His contribution to hymnody is, however, not very great, for he contributed at the most 11 or 12 hymns. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

389        A hymn of glory let us sing


Beethoven, Ludwig van, 1700-1827



Behm, Martin, 1557-1622

Martin Behm (Behem, Behemb, Bohme, Bohemus) was born in Lauban, Silesia, Sept. 16, 1557. During a long period of famine he came in 1574, with the help of a distant kinsman, to Vienna, where he remained for two years as private tutor. In 1576 he came to Strassburg, where he was cared for by Professor Johann Sturm, rector of the university. Following his father’s death in 1580, he returned to Lauban according to the wish of his mother. He was appointed assistant instructor in the city school, and during the same year (1581) he was ordained to the office of deacon of the Holy Trinity Church. In 1586 he became chief pastor of Holy Trinity. In this office he served for 36 years and was highly esteemed as an able preacher and faithful shepherd of souls throughout a long period of distress due to famine, war, and pestilence. He died February 5, 1622.

Behm was a very prominent and prolific hymn writer. He produced upwards of 480 hymns. His hymns emphasize especially the sufferings of Christ, upon which he meditated throughout his life “in order to impress them deeply upon his own heart and those of others.” The greater number of his hymns were published in his Centuria precationum rhythmicarum, in three parts, Wittenberg, 1606, 1608, and 1615. Of the first two parts new editions were printed already in 1611, and all three parts were published in one collection, Jena and Dresden, 1658. A special selection of 79 hymns was published in Halle, 1857. Four of Behm’s hymns have been translated into English. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Martin Behm was the son of Hans Behm (Böhme, Boehm, Behemb Behem, Boheim, Bohemus, or Bohemius), town overseer of Lauban, Silesia, where Martin was born on September 16, 1557. During a protracted famine in 1574 a distant kinsman, Dr. Paul Fabricius, a royal physician at Vienna, took Behm there. For two years Behm acted as a private tutor. After that he went to Strassburg, where he received much kindness from Johann Sturm, rector of the newly founded university After his father’s death in May, 1580, Behm, at his mother’s request, returned home At Easter, 1581, he was appointed assistant in the town school, and on September 2 of that year he was ordained diaconus of Holy Trinity Church. After his senior pastor had been advanced to Breslau, the town council kept the post nominally vacant for two years and then in June, 1586, appointed Behm chief pastor. During the 36 years he served, Behm became renowned as a preacher, as a faithful pastor i] times of trouble (famine, 1590, pestilence, 1616; war, 1619), and as a prolific author He was seized with an illness after he had preached on the Tenth Sunday after Trinity 1621. After twenty-four weeks on the sick-bed he died, February 5, 1622. Behm was a very prominent and prolific hymn-writer. He produced upwards of 480 hymns which emphasize especially the Passion of our Lord. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

80  O blessed holy Trinity

291            Lord Jesus Christ, my Life, my Light


Belsheim, Ole G., 1861-1925

BELSHEIM, OLE G., was born at Vang Valdres, Norway, c August 26, 1861. He came to America as a boy of five and was educated at Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, Northfield Seminary, and Augsburg Seminary in Minnesota and held pastorates successively at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Albert Lea, Minnesota Grand Meadow, Minnesota, and Mandan, North Dakota. Belsheim was a member for eight years of the Hymnal Committee which edited The Lutheran Hymnary, 191 He translated Laache’s Catechism into English in 1894 and edited the Christian You for two years. He died, February 12, 1925. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

583. God’s Word is our great heritage. (Tr.)


Berg, Caroline V. Sandell, 1832-1903

During the so-called “New Evangelical Movement” in Sweden, in which the chief leader was the well known preacher, Carl Olof Rosenius, 1816-1868, great activity developed in the line of spiritual song writing. Rosenius composed many songs, all of which emphasized the central thought of his preaching, namely, free grace in Christ. Among those whose poetry was influenced by Rosenius, must needs be mentioned Lina Berg, née Sandell (1832-1903). She has written a large number of devotional and missionary songs which have become very popular in the New Evangelical circles. The devotional life of the individual and the joint realization of Christian brotherhood were through her given striking expression. As a rule, however, her songs have much in common with the intensely subjective, lighter Anglo-American revival and devotional songs. Only two of her hymns have been given a place in our church hymnals. Our present English version was rendered by the Rev. G. T. Rygh in 1908. (Concerning the melody, see Vol. I, No. 52.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

174        Children of the heavenly Father


Berggreen, Andreas Peter, 1801-80, born in Copenhagen, 2 March 1801, died in the same place 8 November 1880, son of a comb-maker who emigrated from Stockholm. At age 10 he came to live with his mother’s father, the district doctor Lynge in Hillerød, in whose musical home he early displayed a keen sense for music. Afterward he was a student in 1819, he came to Regensen. The plan was that he should become a lawyer, but music possessed all his interest, and after a short time he discontinued and gave himself over to studying music. Yet he had no chance of regular instruction, so he had to work through it on his own. Berggreen was thus essentially self-taught. Weyse, whom he sought out, was to him more a fatherly friend and counselor than a genuine teacher. Berggreen felt continually strongly connected to the students. He rehearsed them in polyphonic singing and thus prepared the formation of a student singing grope, just as he was self-declared director of the cantors at the university’s second annual festival. Later he himself made an impression as teacher in connection with the younger musicians, among others his pupils were Gade and Heise. As a composer Berggreen performed in 1832 at the royal theater with an opera “Billedet og Busten”, with text by Oehlenschläger, to whom he strongly drawn both personally and literarily. Then he composed music for different tragedies and plays of Oehlenschläger and more. A whole list of cantatas and a number of solo and choral songs we have from his hand, just as he also made himself known as a writer (“Musikalsk Tidende” 1836 and a biography of Weyse 1876). Berggreen’s real significance, however, is connected to his meritorious work for church-, school-, and folk-songs. The work for these coincides with his positions as organist at Trinity Church (since 1838), as founder of the Haandværkersangforeningen (1843), as voice teacher at the Metropolitan School and finally as singing superintendent (since 1859). For the school he published 14 books of songs for use in school, in settings for 2, 3, or 4 voices. Collectively rich with great diligence, in part completely unknown folk-song materials he place in his 11 volumes a great collection “folk songs and melodies, patriotic and foreign, set for pianoforte” (second edition 1860-71). Finally, in 1853 he published a new collection of “Melodier til Psalmebog til Kirke-og Hus-andagt” (followed by an “Appendix” 1873), necessitated by the appearance of a new hymnbook by the Roskilde ministerium, partly older, partly with newer melodies, of which a great part are of his own composition. The time for the appearance of this collection of melodies was a time of transition, and the collection bears the mark of that. Berggreen took a middle position in that he to some degree tried to give the traditional church-hymn (“the chorale”) prominence and take notice of the “livelier” hymn melodies which were becoming more widespread under the influence of the Grundtvig side. In his own melodies the same is seen, that some are of one and some are of the other type. Many of them where he either had completely fit the churchly style or found a warm expression for religious spirit, he let them continue. [Kirkeleksikon for Norden, tr. MED]

30, 339


Bernard of Clairvaux, 1090-1153

Through many centuries this famous hymn [O Sacred Head now wounded] has been ascribed to Bernard of Clairvaux. It has been called The Jubilus of St. Bernard or Jubilus St. Bernhardi de nomine Jesu. Many parallels to this hymn have been found in Bernard’s Canticles (Canticum Canticorum). It was possibly written about 1150, shortly after the Second Crusade. St. Bernard had been instrumental in organizing this crusade and was therefore largely blamed for its dismal failure. Tired of the world, he withdrew into solitude. When everything thus seemed dark around him, his thoughts were turned more and more fervently toward Jesus, the light of life. Dr. Schaff in his Christ in Song calls this hymn “the most delightful and the most evangelical of all the hymns of the Middle Ages; the finest and most characteristic sample of Bernard’s poetry; a reflection from his Christ-like personality.” “The hymn,” says Landstad, “is not really intended as a communion hymn; the holy communion is not even mentioned in it. It is a love-song to the heavenly bridegroom, whose name is so dear to the soul that we cannot sufficiently praise it or bless it.” Therefore the hymn has been called Jubilus in nomine Jesu, Praise to the Name of Jesus or a Hymn of Praise Concerning the Name of Jesus. The thought dwells upon the crucified, buried, risen, and ascended Savior and expresses the desire of the soul, its sorrow, its seeking and its searching, it expresses its joy upon having found the Savior, and hope and prayer in communion with Him. Hence, the hymn has indeed become the favorite song of the Lord’s yearning and heavenly-minded bride, the Church, and is therefore especially adapted for use at the Lord’s Supper, which is the soul’s “love-feast” with the Lord. The hymn has been criticized on account of the seemingly monotonous way in which the ideas circle around the central theme. And this is true. But the theme of the hymn is the Lord Jesus. We are reminded of the small winged insects that swarm about an electric light, making continually smaller and smaller circles. Their desire is to unite with the light. They try to enter into the light. It is the center of all their longing and yearning. Thus, rightly considered, the criticism advanced against this hymn rather brings out the most praiseworthy characteristic of this unique Jesus-hymn. Concerning Bernard of Clairvaux Luther says: “If there ever has lived a truly God-fearing and pious monk, then St. Bernard was such a one, whom I rank higher than all monks and popes in all the world, and I have never heard or read of anyone that can be compared with him.”

We do not like to deprive St. Bernard of this hymn. But the authenticity of his authorship has long been called in question. And now, lately, Dom Pathier has found it in a manuscript from the 11th century, where the hymn is ascribed to a Benedictine abbess. St. Bernard was born 1091. The oldest of the manuscripts found hitherto date from the close of the 12th century. One of these is kept in the Oxford library. This contains 42 stanzas and experts have accepted this version as the original of this famous hymn. It is found in almost the same form in the Bodleian and the Einsiedeln manuscripts from the 13th century; also in one manuscript from the 15th century kept in the National Museum of Paris. The number of stanzas varies from 42 to 56. The form containing 50 stanzas was presumably used as a rosary hymn. The hymn has also been divided into several lesser sections for the various groups of the altar service. Thus, in the Roman breviary from 1733 and later: “Jesu dulcis memoria,” etc., for evening worship; “Jesu Rex admirabilis,” etc., for morning worship; and “Jesu angelicum,” etc., for lauda. As early as in the 16th century it was customary to sing several sections of this hymn at the festival of the Holy Name. Thus Paris Breviary from 1499, and the Hereford and Aberdeen Breviaries from 1505 and 1509 have “Jesu dulcis memoria” for the morning worship and “Jesu, auctor clementiae” for the lauda. For use at the canonical periods the hymn was divided into seven sections of about equal length.

There are, indeed, other hymns of which we have several English translations, but this hymn is quite unique in this that it has furnished the source for a vast number of beautiful hymns, Jesus-hymns. Versions of this hymn are sung throughout all Christendom, and it has been translated into all leading languages. A list of the various centos in the English language alone would fill many pages. The oldest German version, “Nie wart gesungen süzer gesanc,” is from the 14th century and contains 11 stanzas. Among the later German translations may be mentioned that by Martin Rinkart: “An Jesum denken oft und viel,” and N. L. von Zinzendorf’s, “Jesu, deiner zu gedenken.” Johann Arndt’s Garden of Paradise, 1612, contains a German version of 18 stanzas beginning with: “O Jesu süss, wer dein gedenkt.” A later edition of this work has another translation of 52 stanzas. The first Danish translation, comprising- 48 stanzas, is by Jens Jensøn Otthense, Copenhagen, 1625. This furnished the basis for Landstad’s Norwegian version (Landst. 66). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Bernard of Clairvaux was born in 1090 at Les Fontaines in France, and he died at Clairvaux in 1153. He sprang from a family of the highest nobility in Burgundy. After a classical education at Chatillon-sur-Seine he entered the Cluniac monastery at Citeaux. When this became crowded, he led forth a band of monks to found a new monastery in Langres. This Bernard called Claire Vallie, or Clairvaux, in 1115. He was abbot of this successful monastery throughout his life, and with it his name has since been associated. This monastery became the scene of St.Bernard’s strict and zealous asceticism, and from this retreat his influence was extended over all that was illustrious or humble in Church or State. Bishops in England, the Queen of Jerusalem, kings of France, Italy, and Britain, abbots and ecclesiastics without number, wrote to, and received letters from, Bernard of Clairvaux. He rebuked the disorders, abuses, sins, prevailing in the Church, defended the inde­pendence of the Church against monarchs, and even dared to assert the interest of the Church against Popes. He settled the schism between the Popes Innocent I and Anacletus II, he fought down the heresies of Abelard, the rationalist, and by his preaching he caused the populations of both France and Germany to arise almost en masse and take up the cross in the Second Crusade. As Taylor says: “…for a quarter of a century he swayed Christendom as never a holy man before or after him. An adequate account of his career would embrace the entire history of the first half of the 12th century.” Luther called him “the most pious monk that ever lived.” The authorship of the famous Jesu, dulcis memoria has long been ascribed to him. This view is no longer tenable. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

265            Wide open are Thy hands

278            O Jesus, King most wonderful

315            Jesus, the very thought of Thee

318            Jesus, Thou joy of loving hearts

334            O sacred Head, now wounded

335            O sacred Head, now wounded


Bernard of Cluny (Morlas), 12th century

Bernard of Cluny (Murles, or Morlas, not Morlaix), was born in Murles, (Bretagne, Britanny), France, in the first part of the 12th century. The abbey of Cluny was at that time the most famous in Europe—famous for its wealth and for its stately buildings, and especially for its cathedral. The im­posing festival services with the elaborate ritual were famed far and wide. The abbot of this institu­tion was the well known Peter the Venerable. Here Bernard spent the greater part of his life. It is not known at what date he died, neither do we know much more about him than that he wrote this famous poem, De Contemptu Mundi (On contempt of the world), which he dedicated to the leader of his order, Peter of Cluny.

Many attempts have been made to render selections of this poem into a form more closely like the original than Neale’s and also in the meter of the original, but these do not seem to have gained favor. A few examples follow: [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Bernard of Cluny was born at Morlaix, France, of English parents. Except for the fact that Bernard entered the Abbey of Cluny while Peter the Venerable was the head thereof (1122–1156), little is known of his life. During this period the Abbey of Cluny reached the zenith of its wealth and fame. Amid luxurious and splendid surroundings Bernard spent his leisure hours and composed his great poem against the vices and follies of his age, De Contemptu Mundi, which was dedicated to Peter the Venerable. Bernard was also author of certain monastic regulations, entitled Consuetudines Cluniacenses. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

534 The world is very evil (sometimes divided under these titles also: Brief life is here our portion; Jerusalem the golden; For thee, O dear, dear country)



Besnault, Abbé Sebastian, d. 1724

Sebastian Besnault was a priest of St. Maurice, Sens. Some of his hymns were included in the Cluniac Breviary, 1686, the Sens Breviary, 1726, and the Paris Breviary, 1736. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]???

157. O blessed day when first was poured

158. The ancient Law departs


Bevan, Emma Frances, née Shuttleworth, 1827-1909

Our English version [of Rise, ye children of Salvation] was furnished by Mrs. Emma Frances Bevan, the daughter of the preacher, Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, the warden of New College, Oxford, later bishop of Chichester. She was born in Oxford, 1827, and in 1856 married R. C. L. Bevan, a wealthy banker. Mrs. Bevan has furnished several fine translations of German hymns. These were published in Songs of Eternal Life, London, 1858, and Songs of Praise for Christian Pilgrims, London, 1859. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Emma Frances Bevan was born at Oxford on September 25, 1827. She was the daughter of the Rev. Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, Warden of New College, Oxford, and Bishop of Chichester. She married Mr.R.C.L. Bevan, a London banker, in 1856. In 1858 she published a number of translations from the German in Songs of Eternal Life, and in 1859 Songs of Praise for Christian Pilgrims. She died in 1909 at Cannes. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

217. Rise, ye children of Salvation. (Tr.)


Bianco of Siena, d. 1434

His hymn Discendi, Amor Santo appeared in Laudi spirituali del Bianco da Siena, edited by T. Bini, 1851. It was translated from Italian to English by Richard Frederick Littledale in The People’s Hymnal, 1867.

9. Come down, O Love divine


Bienemann, Kaspar, 1540-91

Kaspar Bienemann was the son of a burgess of Nürnberg, where he was born on January 3, 1540. He studied at Jena and Tübingen. He was sent by the Emperor Maximilian II as an interpreter with an embassy to Greece. There he assumed the name Melissander, by which he is sometimes known. On his return Bienemann was appointed Professor at Lauingen, Bavaria, and then abbot at Lahr and General Superintendent of Pfalz, Neuburg. He was forced to resign at the out­break of the synergistic controversy. In 1571 Bienemann received his D. D. from the University of Jena and the same year was appointed tutor to Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Sachsen Weimar. He was displaced two years later when the Calvinists gained control of the court. In 1578 he was appointed General Superintendent at Altenburg, where he died on September 12, 1591. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

219            Lord, as Thou wilt, deal Thou with me


Birken, Sigismund von, 1626-81

Sigismund von Birken,the son of Daniel Betulius or Birken, pastor of Wildstein, Bohemia, was born at Wildstein on May 5, 1626. In 1629 his father along with other evangelical pastors was forced to flee from Bohemia and went to Nürnberg. After passing through the Egidien-Gymnasium at Nürnberg Sigismund entered the University of Jena, 1643, and there studied both law and theology, the latter at his father’s dying request. Before completing his course in either he returned to Nürnberg in 1645 and on account of his poetical gifts was there admitted as a member of the Pegnitz Shepherd and Flower Order. At the close of 1645 von Birken was appointed tutor at Wolfenbüttel to the princes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, but after a year (during which he was crowned as a poet), he resigned this post. After a tour, during which he was admitted by Philipp von Zesen as a member of the German Society (or Patriotic Union), he returned to Nürnberg in 1648 and was employed as a private tutor. In 1654 he was ennobled on account of his poetic gifts by the Emperor Ferdinand III, was admitted in 1658 as a member of the Fruitbearing Society, and on the death of Harsdörffer in 1662 became Chief Shepherd of the Pegnitz Order, to which he imparted a distinctly religious cast. He wrote 52 hymns, not many of which have retained a lasting place among the hymns of the Church. He died June 12, 1681. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

236. Let us ever walk with Jesus

287. Jesus, I will ponder now


Bloedel, Elfred, 1993

setting: 574


Bogatzky, Carl Heinrich von, 1690-1774

Carl Heinrich von Bogatzky was born September 7, 1690, on his father’s estate near Militsch, Silesia. His father was a member of the Hungarian nobility and served as lieutenant-colonel in the Austrian army. During his youth Carl was employed as a page at the court of the Duke of Weissenfels. Later he was sent to Breslau to be trained for military service. There he was stricken with serious illness, which turned his mind toward his God and awakened in him the consciousness that the Lord wanted him in His service. Count Heinrich XXIV of Reuss-Köstriz offered to support him with funds for his university course. He began his studies at Jena in 1713 and continued at Halle in 1715. Before Christmas he received a message that his mother had died and that he must come home at once. At a service in which he took part before leaving Halle, he gained, according to his own words, a clear understanding of the doctrine of justification by faith. His father disowned him because he would not enter the army, and at Easter time, 1716, he was enrolled as a student of theology at Halle. During his stay there he wrote “for his edification” his well-known work The Golden Treasury. His health failed and he suffered from hoarseness, which prevented him from taking up work as a preacher. But he spoke at private gatherings and produced a series of religious pamphlets. Among the latter may be mentioned, Concerning True Conversion. He wrote in all 411 hymns, which were published in 1771 in the third edition of Die Uebung der Gottseligkeit, mentioned above. A new edition appeared in 1844.

Bogatzky spent his last years at Halle. G. A. Francke gave him free sustenance at the orphanage. Years before Bogatzky had sold his property and donated the proceeds to the orphanage. He died in Halle, June 15, 1775. No. 710 in the American edition of Landstad’s Hymnal, “O Frelser, som er Lys og Livet,” was written by Bogatzky in 1725 during his visit with Duke Henkel of Pölzig, after having tried to find relief for his illness by taking treatments at the baths of Carlsbad. This hymn was translated into Danish by an unknown author. It appeared in Pontoppidan’s Hymnal of 1740. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Carl Heinrich von Bogatzky was born September 7, 1690, at Militsch in Silesia. For a time he was a page at the ducal court of Weissenfels. At first he intended to enter the army, but sickness prevented him from carrying out this plan. He attended the University of Jena instead in 1713, and later he studied law at Halle. Finally he took up the study of theology; however, on account of poor health he was unable to enter the active service of the Church. He devoted himself to religious authorship instead. He spent most of his life in literary pursuits. The last twenty-eight years of his life were spent at the Orphanage at Halle, where G.A.Francke gave him a room. Among his writings are Das guldene Schatzkästlein der Kinder Gottes, 1718, which was recast in English by John Berridge as The Golden Treasury, and was long a favorite book of devotion in Great Britain. He also assisted in the production of the Cothen Hymns, as important for Germany as the Olney Hymns were for England. His Meditations appeared in seven volumes, 1755–1761, and his Autobiography in 1754. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

395. Awake, Thou Spirit, who didst fire


Bohemian Brethren, Kirchengeseng, 1566 (See Herbert, Petrus)



Bohemian carol melody, c. 1544



Bollhagen, L., Heiliges Lippen…, Stettin, c. 1778

403        God loved the world so that He gave


Boltze, George Gottfried, 1788

George Gottfried Boltze was cantor and school-teacher at an orphanage in Potsdam about 1750; he was still living in 1789. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Bonar, Horatius, 1808-89

Horatius Bonar is the most important of the later English hymn writers. Since the time of Watts, Wesley, Newton, and Cowper, no name occurs oftener than Bonar’s. He gave expression to the deepest and most heartfelt Christian feelings, as well as the most exalted strains of praise and thanksgiving. Bonar was born 1808, in Edinburgh. He completed the course of study in the high school and university. Thomas Chalmers was one of his teachers in theology. He was ordained to the ministry in 1837 and was called to Kelso on the Tweed, near the English border. During the controversy in the Church of Scotland, in 1843, Bonar, together with Dr. Chalmers and other leading men, left the old church and established the Scottish Free Church, with which Bonar was afterward affiliated. In 1866 he moved to Edinburgh, having been called to the pastorate of Grange Church (Chalmer’s Memorial). He was elected moderator of the Scottish Free Church in 1883. Dr. Bonar died in Edinburgh July 31, 1889.

Bonar was an exceptional man, a prominent preacher and author. His Kelso Tracts have been extensively circulated in England and America. The two works, God’s Way of Peace and God’s Way of Holiness, are widely read and have been translated into many languages, among others also into Norwegian. A list of his hymn collections follows:

1. Songs for the Wilderness, 1843-44

2. The Bible Hymn Book, 1845

3. Hymns Original and Selected, 1846

4. Hymns of Faith and Hope, Three series, 1857-61-66

5. Hymns of the Nativity, 1879

6. Communion Hymns, 1881

Besides these he has composed many poems of greater length and many works in prose. About 100 of his hymns are used in England and America. Concerning Bonar’s hymns one hymnologist says: “They win the heart by their tone of tender sympathy. They sing the truth of God in ringing notes.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Horatius Bonar was born in Edinburgh on December 19, 1808. In 1837 he was ordained in the Established Church of Scotland at Kelso. In 1843 (at the Disruption) he became a founder of the Free Church of Scotland. In 1866 he accepted a call to Chalmers Memorial Church in Edinburgh. A voluminous writer of sacred poetry, “the peer of Watts and Wesley,” he published ten tracts or volumes of hymns, 1843–1881, of which seven were published before his church authorized hymn-singing. He was for a time editor of The Border Watch, a paper published in the interest of his church. For many years he edited The Journal of Prophecy. Among his poetical works are Songs for the Wilderness, The Bible Hymn Book, Hymns Original and Selected. Dr.Benson writes: “While he may not have created a new type of English hymns, he had a distinctive style, a childlike simplicity and straightforwardness, a cheerful note with a plaintive undertone,—and he impressed his striking personality upon the English hymn. The appeal to his own generation was so widespread and pronounced as almost to create a cult. Fully a hundred of his hymns have been in church-use, but many are gradually passing out.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

239            I lay my sins on Jesus

410            Glory be to God the Father

433            Not what these hands have done

451            All that I was, my sin, my guilt


Book of Praise, Canada


tr. 251


Borthwick, Jane, 1813-97

Jane Laurie Borthwick, daughter of J James Borthwick, a merchant in Edinburgh, was born in that city the ninth of April, 1813. Her sister Sarah, born November 26, 1823, was married to the Rev. Eric John Findlater. Miss Borthwick and her sister published Hymns from the Land of Luther in four parts or series in 1854, 1855, 1858, and 1862. Besides translations from the German, they also wrote a number of original hymns. AS a signature of authorship they used the initials of the above mentioned publication, “H. L. L.,” and under this signature were written many of their own hymns, as well as translations in The Family Treasury. These were collected and published in 1857 under the title, Thoughts for Thoughtful Hours. Miss Borthwick died in 1897, Mrs. Findlater in 1907. This hymn is found in many English and American hymn books. (J. Mearns.)—The melody (Omnia) is composed by Joseph Barnby. (See Vol. I, No. 116.) Miss Borthwick has 9, and Mrs. Findlater has 5 translations in The Lutheran Hymnary. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Jane Laurie Borthwick was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on April 9, 1813. She and her sister, Sarah Findlater, won for themselves a high place in the useful band of translators. These two published their first translations in Hymns from the Land of Luther in four sections, of which the first appeared in 1854. She wrote also some original hymns, of which many were published in Thoughts for Thoughtful Hours in 1857. In 1875 she again showed her propensity for translating poems, for then she published a selection of poems translated from Meta Heusser-Schweizer, which she called Alpine Lyrics. She died September 7, 1897. Julian writes: “Her translations, which represent relatively a larger proportion of hymns for the Christian Life and a smaller for the Christian Year than one finds in Miss Winkworth, have attained a success as translations and an acceptance in hymnals only second to Miss Winkworth’s.… Hardly a hymnal has appeared in England or in America without containing some of these translations.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

Alleluia! Jesus lives! (Tr.)

Jesus, still lead on. (Tr.)

tr. 84, 340, 587


Bortniansky, Dimitri S., 1752-1825

The melody was written by D(e)mitri Stepanowich Bortnianski (1751-1825). He studied music under Galuppi of St. Petersburg. Later he continued his studies in Venice. He served as conductor of the imperial choir of St. Petersburg and exerted a powerful influence upon church music in Russia. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Dimitri S. Bortniansky was born in the village of Gloukoff in Ukraine. He became a chorister in the Imperial Chapel at St. Petersburg, and there he studied music under Galuppi. In 1768 he followed him to Italy to continue his studies. Shortly after his return to Russia in 1779, he was appointed Director of the Imperial Choir at St.Petersburg, where he died October 9, 1825. He was a distin­guished composer of sacred music and has been styled by some the Russian Palestrina. He composed 35 sacred concertos in four parts, ten for double choir, and a mass according to the Greek rite. His works, published in St. Petersburg in ten volumes, were edited by Tschaikovsky. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Böschenstain, Johann, 1472-1539

Johann Böschenstain, the son of Heinrich Böschenstain, was born at Essling, Württemberg. He took holy orders, and in 1505 became a tutor of Hebrew at Ingolstadt. Here he remained until 1514 when he went to Augsburg, where he published a Hebrew grammar. In 1518 Reuchlin recommended that Böschenstain be invited to become a tutor of Greek and Hebrew at Wittenberg. At this university Böschenstain had Melanchthon as a pupil. Within the next three years he went to Nürnberg, Heidelberg, and Antwerp. He was also at Zurich for a short while, and here he taught Zwingli Hebrew. In 1523 Böschenstain settled in Augsburg, where he became a royal licensed teacher of Hebrew. He died in 1539. Some authorities state that he died at Nördlingen in 1540. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

337. Our blessed Savior seven times spoke


Bourgeois, Louis, c. 1510-61

A Parisian musician, celebrated as having been in charge of the music at Geneva, 1541–57, and having rearranged and composed melodies for the Genevan metrical Psalter, which owes its musical excellence mainly to him. A partial psalter appeared in 1542, and in the subsequent editions during the next fifteen years he seems to have had an important part. The whole of his work on the psalms up to 1547 seems to have been embraced in his work Pseaulmes cinquante de David Roy et Prophete published at Lyons, in 1547. From 1551 on he had difficulties with the Genevan authorities, who opposed changes which he proposed in the tunes of the psalter and the introduction of part-singing, which he favored. He returned to Paris and after 1561 disappeared from history. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


44, 51, 102, 256, 257, 325, 489, 495, 522, 545, 572, 580, 592, 593, 596, 598


Bowring, Sir John, 1792-1872

John Bowring was born October 17, 1792, in Exeter. He was the son of a merchant and began to work in a London mercantile establishment in 1811. At an early age he gained a good knowledge of several foreign languages. In fact, his linguistic ability was so remarkable that later on, when he undertook extensive tours throughout Europe, he acquired a mastery of 40 languages and dialects. This enabled him in after years to place before his countrymen extensive series of splendid translations from the anthologies of Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Spain, Hungary, also of Serbia, Russia, and other Slavonic nations. As the official representative of England he visited many European countries with a view to investigate their economic and commercial conditions, and his reports, full of information and suggestions, gave the impetus to many far-reaching reforms in England. Bowring was a great champion of national liberty, and labored actively for various prison reforms. From 1825 he was for three years associate editor of The Westminster Review. He received his doctor’s degree from the University of Gronningen in 1828. In 1835-37 and again in 1841-48 he was a member of the lower house of Parliament, where he took a prominent part in the proceedings. Then he was appointed British consul in Canton, and in 1854 governor of Hong Kong and minister to China. On his return voyage to England, in 1859, he visited the Philippine Islands and described them in an article. Two years previous he had given a splendid report on the conditions in Siam. Bowring ranked high as a statesman, philanthropist, historian, and poet. Many of his hymns are commonly used. He was always ready and eager to assist promising young men. He continued active until the day of his death, November 23, 1872. Upon his tombstone are inscribed the words of his hymn, “In the cross of Christ I glory.” Duffield says of him: “Theoretically, Sir John Bowring was a Unitarian. Practically he was a devoted and evangelical believer.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

John Bowring, LL.D., F.R.S. (1792–1872), was born at Exeter, England, on October 17, 1792, of an ancient family of Devonshire. His father was a wool-trader and a Dissenter. In his youth Bowring studied under the Rev. Lant Carpenter, the Unitarian pastor of the Presbyterian church of Exeter. From 1811 on he worked for a time in a London mercantile establishment. He became a great linguist, acquiring, it is said, the mastery of 200 languages and dialects and a speaking knowledge of 100. Bowring was able in later years to give to the English-speaking public translations from Bohemian, Slavonic, Russian, Servian, Polish, Slovakian, Illyrian, Germanic, Estonian, Dutch, Frisian, Lettish, Finnish, Hungarian, Biscayan, French, Provençal, Gascon, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalonian, and Galician sources. He visited many European countries as an official representative of England, investigating economic and commercial conditions. His informative and suggestive reports led to far-reaching reforms in England. He was a champion of national liberty and labored actively for various prison reforms. In 1822 he came under the personal influence of the noted Jeremy Bentham. After the latter’s decease in 1832 Bowring published in 1838 an edition of his works in 22 volumes with a Memoir. While editor of the Westminster Review from 1825 to 1827 he advocated Bentham’s principles. In 1828 he received the honorary degree of LL. D. from the University of Groningen. In the same year he served as Commercial Commissioner for his government, traveling in France, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the Levant. Returning to England, Bowring became an active and prominent member of the lower house of Parliament from 1835 to 1837 and again from 1841 to 1848. He then served as consul at Canton and Acting Plenipotentiary and Superintendent of Trade in China. While in China, an attempt was made to poison him and his family. In 1853 Bowring returned to England and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. The following year he was knighted. He then returned to China as Governor, Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral of Hong-Kong. In 1855 he visited Siam and negotiated a treaty with the two kings of the country. When he returned to England, he retired on a pension. In 1819 he published The Kingdom and People of Siam and The Philippine Islands. But he still continued as a diplomat. As Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary of the Siamese and Hawaiian Kingdoms to the European governments, he concluded treaties with Holland, Belgium, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and Sweden. He also served as Magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Devon until his death on November 23, 1872. His very extensive writings were published in thirty-six volumes. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

523. In the Cross of Christ I glory


Boye, Birgitte Katerine, 1742-1824

Birgitte Katarine Boye was born March 7, 1742, in Gentofte, Denmark. Her father, Jens Johansen, was in the royal service. By his wife, née Dorotea Henriksdatter, he had seven children, of whom Birgitte was the oldest. The children were given a thorough Christian education. At an early age Birgitte was betrothed to Herman Hertz, a hunter in the service of the king. When he later was appointed forester of the district of Vordingborg, they were married (1763) and moved to that place, and within five years Birgitte became the mother of four children. She employed all her spare time for diligent study, especially of the German, French, and English languages, with the result that she could read the poetic works of these nations in the original. She never paraded her knowledge, but always hid her books when visitors came into her home.

In 1773 the Society for the Advancement of the Liberal Arts sent out a call soliciting contributions from every person “who had a desire and talent for writing sacred poetry.” The purpose of this invitation became apparent later on. The plan was that, by this means, material might be gathered for a new hymn book which was to replace Kingo’s. Birgitte Hertz contributed twenty hymns, of which eighteen were subsequently included in Guldberg’s Hymnal. The office of forester was abolished by the government and Hertz with his family was placed in very pressing circumstances. His wife Birgitte appealed to Guldberg for help. The matter was laid before Prince Fredrik, who ordered that both her sons should be educated at his expense. Following an illness of one year, her husband died, and during the three years of her widowhood she received her maintenance from Prince Fredrik. During this time she composed and translated, upon Guldberg’s request, many hymns for the new hymn book, so that when the book appeared in 1778, it contained 124 of her original hymns and 24 translations. She was, indeed, a gifted hymn writer, and a number of her festival stanzas will always find a place in Danish and Norwegian church hymnals. But her hymns in many cases were influenced by the spirit and style of Klopstock and Gellert. It was especially her hymns that gave Guldberg’s Hymn Book its characteristic style. There is a blending of elegant and prosaic expressions which does not appeal to our age. Welhaven says: “They sought to render in poetic language pompous and sublime expressions whereby they believe that the pinnacle of poetic effort had been reached. These songs should above all be ‘hymns.’ They sought to rend the church roof and to sing out into space. During this period, so unfavorable for sacred poetic art, the Harbo-Guldberg hymn collection was built up. The new hymns may be recognized by their stilted style and their empty, high-sounding phrases, which are as contrary to the true spirit and essence of Christian devotion as they are out of harmony with the unpretentious simplicity of our chorale melodies.” In 1778 Birgitte Hertz married Hans Boye, an employee in the customhouse of Copenhagen. She survived also him and died October 17, 1824, 83 years of age. Birgitte Boye has also written two dramas, of which Gorm den Gamle is most extensively known. (For notes on the melody, see No. 220.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Birgitte Katarine Boye was born March 7, 1742, in Gentofte, Denmark, the daughter of Jens Johansen of the royal service and of Dorotea, née Henriksdatter. Birgitte was the oldest in a family of seven children. At an early age Birgitte Katerine was betrothed to Herman Hertz, a hunter in the service of the king. When Hertz was appointed forester of Vordingborg in 1763, the betrothed couple was married, and Birgitte became the mother of four children within five years. She employed her spare time in diligent study of German, French, and English with the result that she could read the poetic works of these nations in the original. In 1773 the Society for the Advancement of the Liberal Arts sent out a call soliciting contributions from every person “who had a desire and talent for writing sacred poetry.” This was to obtain material for a new hymnal to replace Kingo’s. She started contributing to this collection, which was the subsequent Guldberg’s Hymnal. Since the office of forester was abolished at this time, the Hertz family was in pressing circumstances. Birgitte appealed to Guldberg for help. He brought the matter to the attention of Prince Fredrik, who ordered both her sons educated at his expense. After an illness of one year Birgitte’s husband died. During the three years of her widowhood she received her maintenance from Prince Fredrik. During this time she composed and translated, upon Guldberg’s request, many hymns for the hymn-book, so that when it appeared in 1778 it contained 124 original hymns and 24 translations by her. In that year she married Hans Boye, an employee in the custom house of Copenhagen. Birgitte survived him and died at the age of eighty-two, October 17, 1824. The hymns of Birgitte Katerine Boye were influenced by the spirit and style of Klopstock and Gellert. Her hymns gave Guldberg’s Hymn Book its characteristic style. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

142            Rejoice, rejoice, this happy morn

348            He is arisen! Glorious Word!

399            O Light of God’s most wondrous love


Boye, Caspar Johannes, 1791-1853

Caspar Johannes Boye was born 1791, in Kongsberg, Norway, and was the son of the rector, Engel­brecht Boye. At the University of Copenhagen he studied both law and theology. He became a teacher and later served as a pastor in Denmark, and was finally appointed preacher for the Garrison Church of Copenhagen. Here he died in 1853. Boye also produced a number of dramas. During his ministry he wrote many hymns which rank among the better productions in hymn literature. Among these may be mentioned “Saa vidt som Solens Straaler stige” (Landst. 179). (For notes on the melody, see No. 230.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Caspar Johannes Boye was the son of Engelbrecht Boye, rector at Kongsberg, Norway, where Caspar was born. He studied law and theology at the University of Copenhagen. He was first a teacher and then a pastor in Denmark. His last appointment was as pastor in Copenhagen, where he died in 1853. Boye produced a number of dramas besides writing many hymns which are considered of a high excellence. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

563. Abide with us, the day is waning


Bradbury, William Batchelder, 1816-68

Bradbury, William Batchelder, was born at York, Maine, on October 6, 1816. He moved to Boston in 1830, where he began the study of the organ and the piano under Lowell Mason. He gained a good reputation as an organist, choirmaster, and composer, and after a few years spent in St. Johns, New Brunswick, Boston, Brooklyn, and New York City he left America for two years of study under the great music teachers of Europe (1847). From 1849 to 1854 Bradbury spent his time teaching, composing, and conducting music festivals. He edited over 50 collections of music and served as editor of the New York Musical Review. He died on January 7, 1868. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



179, 319


Brady, Nicholas, 1659-1726

Nicholas Brady, D. D., son of an officer in the Royalist Army, was born October 28, 1659, in the county of Cork. He was educated at Westminster School, at Christ Church, Oxford, and afterwards at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was graduated in 1685. He was appointed one of the chaplains to William III, and died May 20, 1726. He is known as the associate of Nahum Tate in producing the metrical version of the Psalms authorized in 1696 (The New Version). The share of each in this work cannot be distinguished.



Brauer, Alfred E. R., 1866-1949

Alfred Brauer was born August 1, 1866, at Mount Torrens. near Adelaide, South Australia, took the academic course at Prince Alfred College (Wesleyan), Adelaide, and began to read law. Switching to theology, he came to America and entered Concordia Seminary, Springfield, Ill., in the fall of 1887, graduating in 1890. He was ordained November 12, 1890, and became a sort of an itinerant pastor in the state of Victoria, Australia, until he took over the Dimboola parish, which he served until about 1896. In that year he was called as assistant pastor at St.Michael’s, Ambleside (formerly Hahndorf). Upon the death of Pastor Strempel, his father-in-law, who at that time was president of the Australian Lutheran Synod, he took full charge of the congregation until 1921, when he accepted a call to St. John’s, Melbourne. He was editor of the Australian Lutheran, founded in 1913, and contributed translations to the Australian Lutheran Hymn-Book, 1925, of which he was one of the compilers. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

497 Praise the Almighty, my soul, adore Him. (Tr.)



Bridges, Matthew, 1800-94

Matthew Bridges was born July 14, 1800, in Maldon, Essex, England. He was educated in the Episcopal Church, but in 1848 joined the Church of Rome. During his latter years he resided in Canada. Among his more important works may be mentioned Babbcombe, or Visions of Memory, with Other Poems, 1842. His hymns were published in Hymns of the Heart, 1848, and in The Passion of Jesus, 1852. Many of his hymns were first brought into use in America through Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth Collection, 1855. Many of them are found in Roman Catholic and ritualistic collections. Bridges spent the latter part of his life in Quebec, where he died in 1893. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Matthew Bridges, the youngest son of John Bridges, was born at Maldon, Essex, on July 14, 1800. He was educated in the Church of England, but in 1848 joined the Church of Rome, following John Henry Newman and others interested in the Oxford Movement. In later years Bridges lived in Quebec, Canada.

Bridges’ hymns were published in his Hymns of the Heart, 1848, and in The Passion of Jesus, 1852. Many of his hymns were first brought into use in our country through Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth Collection, 1855. He died in Quebec, October 6, 1894. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

55  Crown Him with many crowns

235            Behold the Lamb of God!

512            My God, accept my heart this day


Bridges, Robert Seymour, 1844-1930

Robert S. Bridges, and dates from the year 1899. Bridges was born 1844, in England. He was educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He ranks high as a poet, author, and translator. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

was born at Walmer, Kent, on Octo­ber 23, 1844. He was educated at Eton and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he received his B. A. in 1867 and his M. A. in 1874. He studied medicine at St.Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, and took his M. B. in 1874. He retired from practice in 1882, settling at Yattendon in Berkshire. The author and poet of many poems and plays, Bridges also edited and contributed to the Yattendon Hymnal, 1899. He was appointed Poet Laureate in 1913. He died in 1930. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

572. O Gladsome Light, O Grace. (Tr.)

203. (Tr.)


Broadsheet, Wittenberg, c. 1541



Brooks, Charles Timothy, 1813-83, st. 1

Charles Timothy Brooks, an American Unitarian minister, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, June 20, 1813, and was graduated from Harvard, 1832, and from the divinity school, Cambridge, 1835. In 1837 he became pastor of Newport, Rhode Island, where he died 1883. While a student at the divinity school, about 1834, he wrote “God bless our native land!” This hymn was revised by John Sullivan Dwight, born in Boston, May 13. 1812 (d. 1893), and educated at Harvard, and at Cambridge Theological College.

He became a Congregational minister and later an editor. This form of the hymn appeared in 1844. The melody bears a resemblance to several melodies of earlier date, beginning with an air attributed to Dr. John Bull, 1619. In the second half of the 18th century it became popular in France, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

602        God bless our native land


Brooks, Phillips, 1835-93

Phillips Brooks, who was pastor of Trinity Church, Boston, wrote this hymn for his Sunday school in 1868. Two years previous, on a journey through the Holy Land, Dr. Brooks had spent Christmas in Bethlehem. The hymn has become very popular and has been given a place in many hymnals both in England and in America.

Phillips Brooks was born December 13, 1835, in Boston, Mass. He was educated at Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1855. He was ordained to the ministry in the Episcopal Church. First he served as rector of the Church of the Advent in Philadelphia, and later of Trinity Church, Boston. In 1891 he was elected bishop of Massachusetts. Brooks died in Boston, January, 1893. Sir Joseph Barnby, who wrote this melody, was born August 12, 1838, in York, England. His father, Thomas Barnby, was an organist. While a boy, Joseph became chorister of York Minster, and later on he entered the Royal Academy of Music, London. For nine years he served as organist of St. Andrew’s, London, and directed the Barnby Choir. Later he had charge of the oratorio concerts; was director of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society, and also in charge of the music department of Eton College, 1875. Barnby has composed an oratorio, Rebekah, and a cantata, The Lord is King, besides a large number of other compositions. He has written 246 hymn tunes and edited many hymnals, among which ought to be mentioned The Hymnary. Barnby died in London, 1896. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Phillips Brooks was born in Boston, December 13, 1835, and studied at Harvard, where he was graduated in 1855. He tried teaching in the Boston Latin School, but proved a “conspicuous failure.” Then he studied at the Episcopal Theological Seminary at Alexandria, Virginia. He was ordained in 1859 and became rector of the Church of the Advent, Philadelphia, and then of Holy Trinity, of the same city. At this time Brooks was 32. Finally he became rector of the famous Trinity Church, Boston. He was offered but declined the office of preacher at Harvard professorships, the assistant bishopric of Pennsylvania. In 1891 he was elected bishop of Massachusetts. Brooks was one of the foremost preachers that America has yet produced. He died January 23, 1893. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

137. O little town of Bethlehem


Brorson, Hans Adolf, 1694-1764

Hans Adolf Brorson was born June 20, 1694, in Randrup, near Ribe and Tønder, and belonged to an old family of ministers. In 1709 he entered the Ribe Latin School, from which he was graduated three years later. In 1712 he took up his studies at the university of Copenhagen, where his interest seems to have centered more upon the humanistic sciences than upon theology. Besides theology he studied philology, history, and philosophy. But the strain was too much for him. He was taken sick and had to go home in 1717, without taking the final examinations. For a while he remained with his brother Nils, who was pastor of Bedsted, and later at his home in Randrup, where he assisted his step-father, the minister, Ole Holbek, in his duties, until he became family tutor in the home of District Superintendent Klausen of Løgumcloister. His stay at this place had a decisive influence upon his life and gave direction to his efforts. From his parents, and especially from his pious and somewhat melancholy mother, he had received deep-toned religious impressions. At an early age he had been influenced by the spiritual awakening which especially proceeded from Halle; but it was not until the time of his quiet activity as a teacher that this spiritual tendency found an opportunity for development. In his loneliness he came, as he himself relates, “into a more intimate union with God in Christ and, under many temptations, through ceaseless spiritual meditations, he tasted of the sweetness of the Gospel.” He found rest especially in the religious philosophy of pietism. In Løgum cloister he became acquainted with Klausen’s daughter, Katrine Steenbeck, who became his wife in 1722. After having passed the final examination in Copenhagen, October, 1721, he accepted a call from Randrup, his native city. These were the happiest years of his life and here he began to write his hymns. In 1729 he was appointed deacon of Tønder in Schleswig, where he worked together with the hymn-writer and editor, Johan Herman Schrader, who published The Hymn Book of Tønder. Here a curious condition obtained: Brorson preached in Danish, but the congregation sang their hymns in German. To remedy this, Brorson wrote a number of Christmas hymns, 1732. Among these may be mentioned: “In this our happy Christmastide” (L. H. 185; Landst. 134); “Mit Hjerte altid vanker” (Landst. 143); “Den yndigste Rose er funden” (Landst. 153); “Thy little ones, dear Lord, are we” (L. H. 179; Landst. 130). No one has written more beautiful Christmas hymns, as one biographer writes: “No one has before or since sung in such a manner concerning Christmas.”

From Tønder he was appointed (without making application, indeed without his knowledge) to become district superintendent and minister of Ribe. When the bishopric of Ribe became vacant, in 1741, Brorson was appointed on the 5th of May of the same year, to fill this office. The story runs in the Brorson family that Christian VI once, in a conversation, asked Brorson whether he had composed the hymn, “Op al den Ting som Gud har gjort” (Landst. 451), and upon receiving his answer gave him the promise of the bishopric. Since this is one of the first hymns published by Brorson, it seems unlikely that the king, several years later, should be uncertain as to its authorship. It is, however, quite reasonable to suppose that Brorson especially through his hymns had gained the favor of the king, so that, as Pontoppidan related, Christian VI “of his own accord” appointed Brorson to the bishopric. Shortly afterwards his wife, at the age of thirty-six, gave birth to her thirteenth child, and both she and the child lost their lives. Brorson was so downhearted on this account that he was inclined to resign his office. In spite of his firm belief in the fatherly guidance of God, he suffered much from a melancholy spirit during his later years. He, however, gave up the idea of resigning, and on August 6, 1741, he was ordained to the bishopric by Bishop Hersleb. In this office he labored with unflinching zeal until his death. On October 4, 1746, Brorson delivered the sermon at the funeral of Christian VI. When King Fredrik V, in 1754, visited Ribe, he was received in the cathedral by the clergy of the town and all the provosts of the district. The school sang a cantata for which Brorson had composed the text. In connection with the festival of 1760 (commemorating the establishment of the monarchy), Brorson was created doctor of theology, October 18. But his end was near. Filled with a desire to depart and to be with the Lord, of which his “swan-song” so fervently testifies, he died June 17, 1764, following a short period of severe sickness. Bishop Brorson had many times been made the target for serious attacks and charges. Bishop Hersleb, his contemporary, especially, took occasion to attack him, when, in a report to the church council, he described Brorson as “a good man, but simple, and on account of weakness and hypochondria well nigh inefficient.” In order to prove the injustice of this judgment, one of Brorson’s successors, Bishop Daugaard, undertook a thorough investigation of Brorson’s official acts. Daugaard came to the conclusion that Brorson “was as much a right-minded, zealous, and efficient bishop, as he was an excellent poet.” He says that in his official letters Brorson “proves himself to have been not only a mild, patient, and Christ-minded officer of the church, but also a man who in every respect was equal to his position, and who possessed the necessary knowledge, insight, and considerateness befitting a bishop and, at the same time, he was endowed with a firm and determined character, so that he was not deterred by any fear of men or respect for persons from doing his duty, which is especially evident from the severity with which he sought to keep unworthy and immature candidates away from the sacred office and to remove ministers and church servants who led improper lives. Such an attitude would not be looked for in the official who deserved to be called ‘simple and inefficient’ in his office, whether mention is made of a lack of the necessary qualifications for the office, or ‘weakness and hypochondria’ be given as the reason therefor. It is indeed true that Brorson suffered many times from serious illness and often from attacks of hypochondria; but, nevertheless, he did not permit these to weaken his zeal for duty, and he never neglected his official work as long as he was able to care for it.”

L. R. Tuxen says: “Hersleb’s discrediting remarks concerning Brorson are thus seen to be entirely unwarranted. It is clear that he did not know his worthy colleague, or at best, that he misjudged him, possibly blinded by ill-will against Brorson, who belonged to the pietistic school, while Hersleb himself was a member of the so called ‘orthodox party.’ In the before mentioned report to the church council, Bishop Hersleb states that fanaticism, separatism, and Herrnhut’ism gained the upper hand, and that many complaints were received about the disturbances which the separatists created in the country, so that it was necessary that the higher officials of the church should be able to cope with the situation.” It is clear from this statement that Hersleb was an opponent of pietism.

Brorson’s daughter (by the second marriage) writes as follows: “He was an active and righteous official and possessed the gift of being able to combine sternness and mildness in an easy address, by which he gained general favor with old and young alike, so that wherever he had made his visitations the young people were willing and eager to have him catechise them. When he was well pleased with the conditions in a congregation he would often sing the stanza of the old hymn: ‘Jeg er nu glad og meget fro,’ (the last stanza of ‘Af Høiheden oprunden er,’ old translation; Landst. 140; L. H. 220). In social life his principal enjoyment was taking part in music and song, surrounded by his family and a circle of friends.” The greater number of Brorson’s hymns were written in Tønder, where he published eleven collections. The first three are without date; No. 4, 1732; No. 5, 1733; Nos. 6-9, 1734; Nos. 10-11, 1735. All these together with several new hymns added appeared in 1739 under the title Troens rare Klenodie. Several enlarged editions were published in 1742, 1747, 1752, 1760, and these have been reprinted a number of times after Brorson’s death. The fourth edition, 1752, contains 274 hymns, of which 82 were original and 192 were translations. In 1765, one year after Brorson’s death, his son, Broder Brorson, published Hans Adolf Brorsons Svanesang, which contains 70 hymns composed during the last year of his life. Among these are found “Den store hvide Flok vi se” (Landst. 559; Behold a host, arrayed in white, L. H. 492); “Her vil ties, her vil bies” (Landst. 476); and “Naar mit Öie, trät af Möie” (Landst. 477). In Danish literature Brorson blazed the way for thoughts and feelings couched in sincere and natural expressions without resorting to the “poetic paraphrasing” which Kingo and his contemporaries were wont to employ. Brorson was a master of the Danish language and possessed a rich poetic talent. His hymns are permeated with deeply religious sincerity, combined with poetic loftiness and direct simplicity. On this account Brorson has been given a place among the most excellent hymn writers.

L. R. Tuxen gives this estimate of Brorson’s work: “The first thing appealing to us is the deep piety and sincerity which permeate all of Brorson’s hymns. While Kingo is admired for his mighty strokes upon the harp, the pious souls felt a greater attraction for the tender, childlike, and sympathetic tone which is unique in Brorson’s hymns and especially in his Christmas hymns (and not the least in the three above mentioned hymns of the ‘Svanesang’). It almost resembles heavenly music; it is the soul, living and breathing in God and the Savior, which, here in earthly tones, gives expression to its highest joys and its deepest anguish; even though we can not entirely absolve him of the pietistic tendency to employ the symbols of a strained imagination, whereby heavenly relations are often made to appear entirely too human. It is also true that at times Brorson is guilty of a somewhat tiresome and complicated sentence building. Brorson’s hymns have been very kindly received in large circles, no doubt, because of the popular character, which is a common trait of all his works. He does not soar into high-sounding tones; does not employ bombastic words, but his song moves on through simple, direct expressions, filled with deep, serious contents; the spirit of his hymns proceeds from his innermost soul, and therefore also finds a ready entrance into the heart; but in view of this popular element, we must all the more admire the poetic wealth and beauty which characterize these incomparable hymns of Brorson. In order to fully appreciate Brorson’s rich, poetic vein, we must emphasize the fact that we find, in Brorson’s hymn collections, all the various types of hymns, all written by himself; types which we otherwise are in the habit of seeking in the combined writings of several composers. “It can not be denied, however, that (as is the case in general with pietistic authors) Brorson also shows traces of the same overbearing spirit, which flings out a note of challenge to the world in such a manner that many of his hymns have a distinctly reprimanding and polemic character. Neither can we entirely absolve him of the common tendencies among the Pietists to make an immoderate use of phrases found in the Song of Solomon to indicate union with the Savior, whereby sensual images and carnal expressions are employed which do not serve to edify but rather to confuse the mind.”

“Brorson has rendered about 200 translations. These have been prepared with such great painstaking and ability that they not only equal the originals, but in many cases even surpass them.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Hans Adolf Brorson, born June 20, 1694, in Randrup, near Ribe and Tonder, belonged to an old family of ministers. He studied at the Ribe Latin School and then at the University of Copenhagen, where he took up theology, philology, history, and philosophy. Brorson was forced to leave the university in 1717 because of his health. He subsequently became the family tutor in the home of District Superintendent Klausen of Logumcloister. In 1721 he accepted a call to Randrup and in 1729 was appointed deacon of Tonder in Schleswig. He became &strict superintendent and minister of Ribe and bishop in 1741. He was made a Doctor of Theology in 1754. He published Troens rare Klenodie, 1739, and the hymn-book which he projected, and to which he largely contributed, was published in 1740, under the title Den ny Salmebog, by Erik Pontoppidan. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

70  I see Thee standing

144            Thy little ones, dear Lord, are we

150            In this our happy Christmastide

215            O Father, may Thy Word prevail

229            By faith we are divinely sure

252            I walk in danger all the way

475            Praise God, This Hour Of Sorrow

516            O watch and pray

553            Behold a host


Brown, Arthur Henry, 1830-1926

Arthur Henry Brown, born at Brentwood, Essex, July 14, 1830 was a self-taught musician; organist of the church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Brent­wood, 1842 to 1853; of the church of St. Edward the Confessor, Romford, Essex, till 1858; and then organist of Brentwood, and a professor of music there; organist also of St.Peter’s Church, South Weald. He was a pioneer in the movement to restore the ancient Plain Chant and to revive the use of the Gregorian Tones in Anglican worship. He published a Gregorian Psalter, The Anglican Psalter, Canticles of Holy Church. He wrote about 700 hymn-tunes. He died in 1926. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


314, 502


Brownlie, John, 1859-1925

101        The King shall come when morning dawns


Brüder Choralbuch, Leipzig, 1784



Brun, Johan Nordahl, 1745-1816

Johan Nordahl Brun was born March 21, 1745, on the homestead of Høiem, Bynesset, Norway. His father, Sven Busch Brun, was a merchant. His mother’s name was Mette Katarina Nordahl. His first instruction in writing and arithmetic was received from his father. His mother taught him to read diligently the Holy Scriptures, so that, when he was eleven years of age, he had read the whole Bible two times. This contributed in great measure to place him upon firm, Scriptural ground and prepared him to become a strong champion of the Christian faith over against the rationalism of his age. He took an active part in outdoor sports, especially skiing and skating. Brun’s half-brother, who had become a candidate of theology in Copenhagen, induced him to become a student. At first he was tutored by his half-brother. Later he attended the Latin school in Trondhjem and the university. He became family tutor in the home of Councillor Meinche and accompanied the latter’s son to Sorø in Denmark. Here he decided to take the theological examination. He was given three months in which to prepare for this. The examination resulted in the lowest possible mark (non contemnendus). His examination in homiletics, however, resulted somewhat better. Brun returned to Norway and spent three years in Trondhjem as an instructor, preacher, and poet. He applied for two positions, but was not appointed. In 1771 he accompanied Bishop Gunnerius to Copenhagen as his private secretary. His activity as secretary, however, did not materialize. But during his stay in the capital city he wrote the drama Zarine, which created a sensation and brought him good returns. Although this was not a work of high merit, still it deserves mention because it was instrumental in bringing forth Wessel’s masterpiece, Kjærlighed uden Strømper. A new drama, Einar Tambeskjælver, published by Brun in 1772, received much unfavorable criticism. The next year he became assistant pastor at Bynesset. He was ordained 1773 in Trondhjem. In the fall of the same year he married Ingeborg Lind, with whom he had been engaged twelve years. His new position brought him a very meager income, but he tried to adjust himself to the conditions. He was assisted materially by a group of faithful friends in Trondhjem. Moreover, the members of his congregation held him in great love and esteem. Brun, however, desired above all to work in the city. But he applied in vain for the rectorship of the church of Our Lady. In 1774 he was appointed to a similar position in Bergen. He was installed there on the seventh Sunday after Trinity and held this position until January 6, 1804, when he was made bishop of the diocese of Bergen. But as far back as 1793 he had been called as provost of the district of Bergen, Nordhordland, and Voss and had served from 1797 as constituted bishop.

While serving as a minister, Brun gained great fame not only as a poet, but especially as an eloquent preacher. Further, in the office of bishop he deserves undying praise for his very able opposition in word and deed to the onslaughts of the rationalists. He was found in the front ranks, meeting every attack upon the old established Christian faith, and before he died he saw the dawn of a better era. The congregations in the diocese of Bergen owe it to Brun’s activity that they were spared from the influence of Balle’s books of instruction and the Evangelical-Christian Hymn Book. Brun died July 26, 1816.

In the history of hymnology Brun is especially noted for his Evangelical Hymns, published in Bergen, 1786. In the foreword to his edition he states that he is approaching the age “when the soul is losing its fire and we eagerly reach out for some happier moment that may shine thru the clouds of sorrow that surround us. Our divine worship is that garden from which I have gathered my flowers. But I have gathered during the autumn season. Our new hymn book (Guldberg’s) has gathered in the most fragrant blossoms. Only in places, where it seemed to me that he had not gathered all, there I have made an attempt. And, for the purpose of marking these, I have, in connection with all my hymns, given the corresponding number in the hymnary. If the regular hymns should be preferred to mine, it shall not offend me, as long as mine are also found useful for edification. I fully admit that the Church of God might well dispense with my little book. But let it be said that among many such superfluous works my book will be found free from poison, and that in composing this work I have enjoyed many pleasant hours. But if it is welcomed, if it is cherished by those who worship the Father in spirit and truth, those who have an hour of the Lord’s Day to spare for divine worship in the home, then I will not exchange this reward for any crown of laurels.” This collection contains sixty-five hymns. The hymnologist Skaar says: “It can scarcely be denied that there is a certain strained effect in some of Brun’s hymns. This was a common characteristic of his times. And even where they are not directly bombastic, they are often more rhetorical than poetical. There is unusual power in his hymns, but this force is often expressed in terms that do not appeal to the heart. His didactic hymns are at times sentimental, but frequently they approach the prosaic. A few of his hymns are strongly allegorizing and exhibit both the strength and the weakness of this method. And, if his hymns are compared with those to which he refers by the numbers in his book, the latter very frequently will be preferred. Nevertheless, several among the sixty-five hymns will be found to compare favorably with many of our best church hymns. They all bear witness to a life in faith which has its fountain in God Himself and which is nourished by His Word, and which throughout all time will appear like an oasis in the spiritual desert of his time.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

482            In heav’n is joy and gladness

514            Our Lord and God, O bless this day

586            How blest are they who hear God’s Word


Bruun, Samuel Olsen, c. 1695

Samuel Olsen Bruun was born presumably, in Jutland. Having completed the course of study in the school of Aalborg, he matriculated at the University of Copenhagen in 1677. By 1687 he was “resident vicar of Kragerø, Norway,” and is mentioned in 1695 still as “a fellow-servant of the Word in Kragerø Congregation.” Later he was appointed pastor in charge of this congregation. The time of hid death is not known. While serving as vicar he published Dend sjungende Tids-Fordrif, eller Korsets Frugt, containing a number of spiritual songs and hymns for us, unto spiritual edification and Godly pastime, at all times and under all circumstance. The preface is dated April 10, 1695, and it is very likely that the book was published during that year. Many later editions have followed, and the book has been extensively used in Norway. The book is dedicated to Mattias Moth (Copenhagen), and the author mentions in this dedication that a sad lot had befallen him. He says in the preface that he called his book Korsets Frugt (Fruit of the Cross), “because it is the fruit of my cross, and it has been my dearest pastime during my trials which otherwise, because of my weakness, would at times have completely distracted me in my studies.” Nothing is mentioned as to the nature of his affliction. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

575            The sun has gone down


Buchanan, Annabel Morris, 1889-1983

setting: 539


Budry, Edmund Louis, 1854-1932

73 Thine is the glory


Burckhardt, Abel, 19th century

146        When Christmas morn is dawning


Burney, Charles, 1726-1814




Campbell, Robert, 1814-68

Robert Campbell was born at Trochraig, Ayrshire, Scotland, December 19, 1814. Early in life Campbell showed a strong predilection for theological studies, but he became fixed in law and entered on the duties of an advocate. He was a zealous, devoted member of the Episcopal Church of Scotland directing special attention to the education of the children of the poor. In 1848 he began a series of translations of Latin hymns. These translations he submitted to the critical eyes of Dr. J. M. Neale, Dr. Mills of Ely, and of other competent judges. The result was that in 1850 a selection from these translations of Latin hymns and a few of his original hymns were compiled to make the so-called St. Andrew’s Hymnal. This hymnal received special sanction of Bishop Torry. Two years later he was converted to Roman Catholicism. He died at Edinburgh, December 29, 1868. His translations are smooth, musical, and well sustained. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

Christians, come in sweetest measures (Tr.)

tr. 310, 411


Cantica Laudis, Boston, 1850



Cantionale Germanicum, Dresden or Gochsheim, 1628

23, 50


Carey, Henry, 1692-1743

Henry Carey, whose antecedents are not definitely known to us, was a teacher in private families and boarding schools in England. He was a prolific author of burlesques, farces, songs, and poems, the best known being Sally in Our Alley. His collection of songs, The Musical Century was published in 1740. His dramatic works appeared in 1743. His writing of church music was only incidental. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Carr, B., 1769-1831

setting: 510


Caswall, Edward, 1814-78

Edward Caswall was born 1814 in Yately, England, where his father was a minister. He was educated at Oxford and served seven years as minister in the Episcopal Church. In 1850 he joined the Catholic Church. Caswall wrote many hymns and other poems, but is best known for his translations of Latin hymns. He died in 1878. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

tr. 10, 85, 96, 278, 283, 315, 547


Cawood, John, 1775-1852

John Cawood, the son of a farmer in Matlock, Derbyshire, England, was born March 18, 1775. For a time he studied under private instruction and later completed his education at Oxford, where he took the final examinations in 1801. He was ordained to the ministry and served as assistant pastor in several places, until he became “perpetual curate” in Bewdley, Worcestershire. He died November 7, 1852. Cawood did not publish any of his seventeen hymns. The greater number of them have later been included in many hymnals. Richard Redhead, born 1820, composed this melody (Debenham, Redhead 143, St. Nicholas, St. Bede). At an early age he became chorister at Magdalen College, Oxford. Here he became acquainted with the Rev. F. Oakeley, who secured his appointment as organist of Margaret Street Chapel in 1839. Redhead’s Plainsong Psalter, Laudes Diurnae, 1843, and Church Hymn Tunes, 1853, and others, were the leading productions in church music during the prosperous period of the English Catholic Church of the nineteenth century. From 1864 Redhead was organist of St. Mary Magdalene Church, Paddington. He has written a number of hymn tunes which are simple and churchly in spirit. He died in 1901. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

228        Almighty God, Thy Word is cast


Cennick, John, 1718-55

John Cennick, born at Reading, Berkshire, England, December 12, 1718, was first a preacher under Wesley, then under Whitefield. In 1745 he joined the Moravian Brethren, and died in London, July 4, 1755. His hymns are found in his Sacred Hymns for the Children of God in the Days of Their Pilgrimage (1741-42), in Sacred Hymns for the Use of Religious Societies (1743-45), and in Hymns for Children (1754). Some of his unpublished hymns were included in the collections of the Moravian Brethren. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

600        Great God, we praise Thy gracious care


Chadwick, James, 1813-82

tr. 116


Chandler, John, 1806-76

John Chandler (1806-76), educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford; minister of the Church of England. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

tr. 99, 106, 157, 397, 487


Chatfield, Allen, 1808-96

tr. 496


Christiansen, F. Melius, 1871-1955

setting: 27, 266, 397, 475, 509, 590


Christlich neu-vermehrt Gesangbuch, Erfurt, 1663



Christlich Singebüch für Layen…, Breslau, 1555

setting: 128


Clarke, Jeremiah, c. 1674-1707

The melody (St. Magnus or Nottingham) was written by Jeremiah Clarke, an English musician (1669?-1707). He was for some time organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, and collaborated with William Croft and Daniel Purcell. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

393, 455


Clausnitzer, Tobias, 1619-84

Tobias Clausnitzer was born February 5, 1619. He studied at several universities and received his master’s degree from Leipzig in 1643. The following year he was appointed army chaplain for a Swedish regiment. On the second Sunday in Lent he delivered the festival sermon in the church of St. Thomas in Leipzig. The occasion was Queen Christina’s accession to the crown of Sweden. He also preached at the thanksgiving services held at Weiden, January 1, 1649. The latter sermon was delivered at the special request of General Wrangel following the signing of the Peace of Westphalia. In the same year Clausnitzer was appointed to the pastorate of Weiden. Later he was also chosen member of the consistory and inspector of the district. He died May 7, 1684, in the city of Weiden. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

1    Blessed Jesus, at Thy Word

37  We all believe in one true God, Father


Clement of Alexandria, c. 170-c. 220

St. Clement (Clemens) was born in Athens, presumably about the year 170. Eusebius and Photius give his full name as Titus Flavius Clemens. There is no information available concerning his parents or relatives. He was a zealous scholar and a seeker after truth. He sought to satisfy his earnest longing for knowledge and understanding of lofty things. He has been classed as a Stoic and an Eclectic, searching all available writings in Greek, Assyrian, Egyptian, and Hebrew. He himself mentions six prominent men who taught him to know the true tradition of the blessed doctrine of the Holy Apostles. In Alexandria he studied the Christian faith and doctrine under Pantaenus, who was in charge of the school for catechumens. When Pantaenus retired from his position Clemens took over the office in the year 190 and served with great success until 203. He drew unto himself a large number of disciples, several of whom later became prominent men, as, for instance, Origen, and Alexander, later Bishop of Jerusalem. During the persecutions under Emperor Severus, 202-203, he was compelled to flee from Alexandria. It is not known where he went. The only later trace of him is in connection with a message of congratulation sent by his former disciple Alexander, then Bishop of Cappadocia, to the congregation of Antioch, on the occasion of the choice of Asclepiades for the bishopric in that city. This message, dated 211, is said to have been brought to Antioch by Clemens, and there his story ends. Nothing is known of his later years or concerning his death. except that the year 220 has been mentioned as the year of his death.

He left in all ten books or works, among these The Tutor in three volumes. The first book describes the teacher who is The Word, and the children whom he is to instruct, Christian men and women, and his method of instruction. The second book gives formulas and instruction concerning daily life, regarding eating, drinking, sleep, etc. The third book describes the nature and essence of true beauty, criticizing and severely condemning all extravagance in clothing. In connection with this work there are in the printed editions two poems: A Hymn concerning the Savior, and Address to the Tutor. From the first poem we have derived the hymn, “Shepherd of tender youth,” employed in The Lutheran Hymnary. Dr. H. M. Dexter says: “There are four other English translations and a redaction from the same hymn beginning with the 11th stanza of the original ‘O Thou, the King of Saints.’” There are a number of other centos based upon this original; one by Dr. Mcgill as follows: “Lead, Holy Shepherd, lead us,” and “Bridle of Colts Untamed,” by Dr. U. S. Alexander. The original of these versions is the most ancient Christian hymn. (Concerning the melody, see No. 456.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

183            Master of eager youth (Shepherd of tender*)


Clephane, Elizabeth C., 1830-69

Elizabeth Cecilia Clephane, daughter of Andrew Clephane, who was the sheriff of Fife, was born June 18, 1830, in Edinburgh, and died February 18, 1869.

In publishing the first of Miss Clephane’s songs in The Family Treasury, Rev. W. Arnot of Edinburgh thus introduced them: “These lines express the experiences, the hopes and the longings of a young Christian lately released. Written on the very edge of this life with the better land fully in view through faith, they seem to us footsteps printed on the sands of time where these sands touch the ocean of Eternity. These footprints of one whom the Good Shepherd led through the wilderness into rest may, with God’s blessing, contribute to comfort and direct succeeding pilgrims.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

330        Beneath the cross of Jesus


Coffin, Charles, 1676-1749

Charles Coffin, born 1676 in Buzanzy (Ardennes), became superintendent of Beauvais College in 1712, and rector of the University of Paris in 1718. In 1727 he published a few Latin poems and in 1736 his hymns were printed in the Paris Breviary. During the same year they were published in a separate edition under the title: Hymni Sacri Auctore Carolo Coffin. His complete poems were published in two volumes in 1755. Coffin’s hymns are characterized as being “direct and filled with the spirit of grace.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

99  The advent of our King

106            On Jordan’s bank the herald’s cry


Collection of Hymns, London, c. 1757 (See Hail, Thou once despised Jesus!)

270        Hail, Thou once despised Jesus!


Cöln Gesangbuch, 1619




tr. 2, 6, 38, 40, 41, 48, 78, 110, 128, 158, 175, 177, 226, 227, 247, 250, 263, 273, 276, 298, 331, 334, 335, 362, 374, 396, 414, 426, 435, 448, 488, 503, 511, 519, 522, 527, 544, 562, 569, 599


Concentus novi, Augsburg, 1540

326, 456, 494


Conder, Josiah, 1789-1855

Josiah Conder, fourth son of Thomas Conder, a London bookseller, was born in Falcon Street, Aldersgate, September 17, 1789. At fifteen he was able to become an assistant to his father in his bookstore. He was the author of several prose works. In 1812 he contributed three hymns to Dr. Collyer’s collection and in 1836 he edited The Congregational Hymn-Book. A Supplement to Dr. Watts Psalms and Hymns, which contained fifty-six of his own hymns, and in 1851 he published a revised edition of Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns. He died December 27, 1855. In the year after his death, his poems and all his hymns, already completely revised by him before his death, were published under the title of Hymns of Praise, 1856. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

222. Lord, ‘tis not that I did choose Thee


Conkey, Ithamar, 1815-67

The melody (Rathbun) was composed in 1847 (or 1851) by Ithamar Conkey (b. Mass., 1815; d. 1867). He was an eminent bass soloist in the oratorio concerts of New York. John Bowring was born October 17, 1792, in Exeter. He was the son of a merchant and began to work in a London mercantile establishment in 1811. At an early age he gained a good knowledge of several foreign languages. In fact, his linguistic ability was so remarkable that later on, when he undertook extensive tours throughout Europe, he acquired a mastery of 40 languages and dialects. This enabled him in after years to place before his countrymen extensive series of splendid translations from the anthologies of Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Spain, Hungary, also of Serbia, Russia, and other Slavonic nations. As the official representative of England he visited many European countries with a view to investigate their economic and commercial conditions, and his reports, full of information and suggestions, gave the impetus to many far-reaching reforms in England. Bowring was a great champion of national liberty, and labored actively for various prison reforms. From 1825 he was for three years associate editor of The Westminster Review. He received his doctor’s degree from the University of Gronningen in 1828. In 1835-37 and again in 1841-48 he was a member of the lower house of Parliament, where he took a prominent part in the proceedings. Then he was appointed British consul in Canton, and in 1854 governor of Hong Kong and minister to China. On his return voyage to England, in 1859, he visited the Philippine Islands and described them in an article. Two years previous he had given a splendid report on the conditions in Siam. Bowring ranked high as a statesman, philanthropist, historian, and poet. Many of his hymns are commonly used. He was always ready and eager to assist promising young men. He continued active until the day of his death, November 23, 1872. Upon his tombstone are inscribed the words of his hymn, “In the cross of Christ I glory.” Duffield says of him: “Theoretically, Sir John Bowring was a Unitarian. Practically he was a devoted and evangelical believer.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

CONKEY, Ithamar (1815-1867), was born in Shutesbury, Massachusetts, on May 15, 1815. He served as organist and choir director at the Central Baptist Church Norwich, Connecticut, and as bass soloist at Calvary Episcopal Church, New York. He then became a member of the choir of Grace Church, New York, and bass soloist and conductor of the quartet choir of the Madison Avenue Baptist Church, New York. In New York he was considered an authority on oratorio singing. He died April 30, 1867.[Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

354. RATHBUN[Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Copeland, William John, 1804-85

William John Copeland was born at Chigwell, England, on September 1, 1804. He studied at St. Paul’s School and Trinity College, Oxford, receiving his B. A. in 1829, his M. A. in 1831, and his B. D. in 1840. Copeland was successively a Scholar, Fellow, and Dean of Littlemore, and in 1849 Rector of Farnham, Essex, and Rural Dean of Newport. He has contributed a number of translations from the Roman Breviary, and a number of modern centos are based on his lines. He died at Farnham, August 25, 1885. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

571. O Christ, who art the Light and Day. (Tr.)[Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


Corbeille, Pierre de, c. 1221



Cory, Julia Bulkley Cady, 1882-1963

CORY, Julia Bulkley Cady (1882- ). According to the Handbook to the Hymnal (Presbyterian) Mrs. Cory is the daughter of J. Cleveland Cady, a noted architect in New York City. He was an active member of Brick Presbyterian Church of that city, and was superintendent of the Sunday school in the Church of the Covenant affiliated with it. Mrs. Cory also was a member of this church. Mr. Frank J. Metcalf of Washington, D. C., wrote us: She is the wife of Robert H. Cory and lives in Englewood, N. J. In 1904 Archer Gibson, organist of the Brick Presbyterian Church in New York, asked her to write a Thanksgiving hymn for the tune Kremser.[Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

466. We praise Thee, O God, our Redeemer, creator. (Tr.)


Cowper, William, 1731-1800

William Cowper was born November 15, 1731, in Great Berkhampstead, where his father, John Cowper, served as pastor and also as court chaplain for George II. His father was a nephew of William, the Earl of Cowper, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. His mother was a descendant of Henry III. She was a pious woman. She died when William was only six years of age. At the age of 10 years he was sent to the Westminster School, where he remained for eight years. His religious instruction was very meager, a fact to which he often refers with sadness in some of his poems. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and in 1759 was made commissioner of bankruptcy. In 1763 he was appointed reading clerk to the House of Lords. He suffered from melancholy, and during this period his mind became unbalanced. After an attempt at suicide he was committed to an asylum, where he remained for two years. During his darker moments he was tormented by the illusion that God had rejected him. But under wise and Christian care and treatment it passed away, and after some time he came to Huntingdon in order to be near his brother, John Cowper, who was the rector of that place. Here he became acquainted with the minister, Morley Unwin, and his wife, and formed a lifelong friendship with them. When Morley died, shortly after, Cowper moved to Olney together with Mrs. Unwin and her children. This was in 1767. At Olney he came under the enthusiastic guidance of John Newton, and the work of these two men became of great importance for the church. Cowper wrote 68 hymns for Newton’s well-known collection, called the Olney Hymns. He also took an active part in leading at prayer and revival meetings. In 1770, his brother, John Cowper, died and, about a year after, William Cowper’s madness returned. The thought of “sacrificing” his life again obsessed him. Southey says that he was under the conviction that God required a sacrifice of him and that he, like Abraham, should offer up his dearest possession. Abraham was to sacrifice his son; Cowper must sacrifice himself. This dark period of affliction lasted 16 months. He resided in Newton’s house and was tenderly cared for by Mrs. Unwin. He recovered gradually and spent a few comparatively happy years. His greatest poem, The Task, and the comic ballad, John Gilpin, were inspired through his acquaintance, in 1783, with Lady Austen. In 1791 he translated Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. During the long illness of Mrs. Unwin and following her death in 1796, the melancholy darkness again deepened over his soul. The Castaways (1799) became Cowper’s final contribution to literature. He died April 25, 1800, in East Dereham, Norfolk.

Although Cowper is the most prominent English poet who has written hymns, his productions do not really represent any improvement of their structure or any particular progress in the expression of spiritual ideas. The predominant note is, as in Newton’s hymns, peace and thankful contemplation, rather than joy and gladness. The greater number of his hymns are characterized by trust and faith. Many breathe a spirit of deep humility, others are full of sad yearning, self reproach, or dark spiritual conflict. The specialty of Cowper’s work is a greater plaintiveness, tenderness, and refinement. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

COWPER, William (1731-1800), was born in his fathers rectory at Berkhampstead, England, on November 26, 1731. Although Cowper’s mother died when he was only six years old, she had become a real friend and companion to him. When he received a picture of her in his sixtieth year, Cowper composed some lines to her memory which are indeed a high tribute. At school Cowper was wretched because of his extreme shyness and eccentric character. Later at Westminster he adjusted himself a little better. Here Cowper studied law. At this time he fell in love with his cousin, Theodora Cowper, and wrote love poems to her. Her father forbade her to marry Cowper, but she never forgot him and in later years secretly aided his necessities. Fits of melancholy began to seize Cowper with greater regularity. His nomination to the Clerkship of the Journals of the House of Lords proved a calamity. The thought of a public examination disturbed him to the extent of overthrowing his reason and driving him to attempted suicide with “laudanum, knife, and cord”. The delusion of his life now appeared - a belief in his reprobation by God. Under the wise and Christian treatment of Dr. Cotton at St. Albans this malady passed away. In general the next eight years were happy ones for Cowper - full of the realization of God’s favor. This was the happiest, most lucid period of his life. The first two years of this period were spent at Huntington, where Cowper formed the life-long friendship of Mrs. Unwin, the wife of the Rev. Morley Unwin. The remainder was spent at Olney with John Newton, with whom Cowper collaborated on the justly famous Olney Hymns. But the tension of the Calvinistic exercises, the despondence of Newton, and the death of Cowper’s brother brought another attack of madness and attempted suicide. For sixteen months Cowper lived under this dark cloud. Mrs. Unwin kept him occupied with small tasks and suggested that he do some serious poetical work. The malady gradually left Cowper by the time his cousin, Lady Hesketh, brought him to Weston in 1786. But the death of Mrs. Unwin brought fixed despair of which Cowper’s last poem, The Castaway, is a terrible memorial. From this melancholy Cowper never recovered. He died at East Dereham on April 25, 1800. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

301            There is a fountain filled with blood

434            God moves in a mysterious way


Cox, Frances Elizabeth, 1812-97

Miss Frances Elizabeth Cox for her Hymns from the German, 1864. Miss Cox was born in Oxford, May 10, 1812; died September 23, 1897. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

COX, Frances Elizabeth (1812-1897). Frances Elizabeth Cox was born at Oxford in 1812. She made her contribution to hymnology as a translator of German hymns. She was indebted to Baron Bunsen, who guided her selection as to hymns worthy of translation. Her first book was Sacred Hymns from the German, 1841. Later she published another book, Hymns from the German, 1864. The two books contained a total of 56 translations.

tr. 95, 256, 337, 353, 391


Croft, William, 1678-1727

The melody (St. Anne) was composed by William Croft (b. ca. 1677), organist of St. Anne’s, Westminster, later organist of Chapel Royal and Westminster Abbey. He was a prominent composer of church music. Croft died in 1727 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

CROFT, William (1678-1727), was born in 1678 at Ettington, Warwickshire, of a good family, and was one of the children of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. He became organist of St. Ann’s, Soho, and in 1700 gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel Royal. In 1704 he was made joint organist of the Chapel Royal with Jeremiah Clark and three years later sole organist. In 1708 he was appointed organist of Westminster Abbey and composer to the Chapel Royal. In 1713 he was made a Doctor of Music by Oxford. He died at Bath of an illness occasioned by his attendance on his duty at the coronation of George II. In his earlier life Croft composed for the theater and also wrote sonatas, songs, and odes. Later he became absorbed in sacred music and made for himself in this field one of the greatest names in English musical history. Many fine anthems of his still live; his service music is of the highest importance; but his tunes give Croft his widest fame. It is said that he influenced Händel to a considerable extent and that his cathedral music was one of the models of Händel’s high sacred style in his oratorios. Crofts tunes are of importance historically, as they are the earliest examples of the English psalm-tune as distinguished from the Genevan. Croft wrote Divine Harmony, a collection of the words of anthems with a brief historical account of English Church music; Musica Sacra, a collection of 30 anthems; and a Burial Service of his own composition. Crofts epitaph in Westminster Abbey concludes with the words, Having resided among mortals for fifty years, behaving with the utmost candor . . . he departed to the heavenly choir . . . that being near, he might add to the concert of angels his own HALLELUJAH.



Cronenwett, Emanuel, 1841-1931

CRONENWETT, Emanuel (1841-1931), son of the Rev. George Cronenwett and Magdalene, née Knapp, was born near Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 22, 1841, was educated for the Lutheran ministry at Capital University, Columbus, Ohio, and after his ordination at Woodville, Ohio, served at Carrollton, where he ministered to seven congregations in four counties; then at Waynesburg, Ohio, at Wooster, Ohio, at Delaware, Ohio, and the last fifty-four years of his long ministry at Butler, Pennsylvania. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him by Grove City (Pa. ) College. A volume of his hymns and poems was published in 1926. He died at Butler, Pennsylvania, March 9, 1931. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

216            Of Zion’s honor angels sing!

234            We have a sure prophetic Word

tr. 93, 219, 545


Crossman, Samuel, c. 1624-84

Samuel Crossman was born in Bradfield Monachorum, Suffolk, England. Crossman earned a Bachelor of Divinity at Cambridge University, and was Prebendary of Bristol. His father was Samuel Crossman of Bradfield Monachorum, Suffolk. In 1664, he published his hymns in The Young Man’s Meditation, or some few Sacred Poems upon Select Subjects, and Scriptures. In 1683 he was appointed dean of the Bristol cathedral.

He died February 4, 1683, Bristol, England, and is buried in the south aisle, Cathedral Church, Bristol, England. [The Cyber Hymnal]

303        My song is love unknown


Cruciger, Elisabeth Cecelia (von Meseritz), c. 1500-35

Elisabet Creutziger (von Moseritz) was a daughter of a Polish nobleman. During the persecutions, the family came to Wittenberg, where the young woman was married to Kaspar Creutziger, a student at the university and one of Luther’s most devoted pupils. Shortly after, he became minister and teacher in Magdeburg and later, 1528, professor of theology in Wittenberg. Elisabet Creutziger, who was a friend of Luther’s wife, is mentioned as a woman of rare musical gifts and a model wife and mother. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

224        The only Son from heaven


Crüger, Johann, 1598-62

CRÜGER, Johann (1598-1662), was born at Gross-Breesen, Brandenburg, on April 1, 1598. He studied at schools in Guben, Sorau, and Breslau, the Jesuit College at Olmütz, and the Poets’ School at Regensburg. He traveled through Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, and Moravia and then settled at Berlin in 1615. Here he employed himself as a private tutor until 1622, except for a short residence at the University of Wittenberg in 1620. He received a thorough musical training under Paulus Homberger in Regensburg, a pupil of Giovanni Gabrieli. In 1622 Crüger was appointed cantor of St. Nicholas Church at Berlin and also one of the masters of the Greyfriars Gymnasium. Crüger wrote no hymns, but he was one of the most distinguished music and tune composers of his time. He composed 71 chorales, of which 18 have received a wide usage in the Evangelical churches of the world. His church-hymn collections include Neues vollkömmliches Gesangbuch, 1640; Praxis pietatis melica, 1644, which appeared in many editions; Geistliche Kirchenmelodeyen, 1649; Psalmodica sacra, 1658. He died at Berlin, February 23, 1662. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

28, 32, 52, 63, 94, 115, 161, 180, 263, 292, 328, 336, 341, 353, 404, 450, 532


Crull, August, 1846-1923

CRULL, August (1845-1923). Crull was born at Rostock, Germany, on January 26, 1845, the son of Hofrat F. Crull. He was educated at the Gymnasium in his home town and at Concordia College (St. Louis and Fort Wayne) and Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri. He was for a while assistant pastor in Trinity Church, Milwaukee. There he also served as Director of the Lutheran High School. Later he served as pastor of the Lutheran Church in Grand Rapids, Mich., and finally as professor of the German language and literature at Concordia College, Fort Wayne, Indiana, from 1873 to 1915. He published a German grammar and edited a book of devotions, Das walte Gott, drawn from the writings of Dr. C. F. W. Walther. Crull was a distinguished hymnologist. Many of his translations have appeared in The Lutheran Hymnary, Decorah, Iowa, 1879; in the Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1880; in Hymns of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1886; and in the Evangelical Lutheran Hymn - Book, 1912. He died at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 17, 1923.

tr. 71, 88, 148, 220, 271, 287, 379, 386, 403, 404, 423, 446, 460, 578


Cutler, Henry S., 1824-1902

The melody (All Saints) was composed by Henry Stephen Cutler, doctor of music, born in America, 1824; died in 1902. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

CUTLER, Henry S. (1824-1902), was born in Boston. He traveled in Europe, making an intensive study of the music of the Established Church. He served first at Grace Church, Boston, and from 1852 to 1858 at the Church of the Advent in Boston. At the latter place he trained an excellent choir of men and boys, noted not only for their fine singing but also because they were apparently the first surpliced choir in this country. In 1858 Cutler joined Trinity Church, New York, where he served as choirmaster for seven years and introduced a full liturgical service. After leaving Trinity he was active in Brooklyn, Providence, Philadelphia, and Troy until his death. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Czamanske, William Martin, 1873-1964

CZAMANSKE, William Martin (1873- ), was born August 26, 1873, at Granville, Wisconsin. He was graduated from Concordia College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1894, and from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1898. Ordained and installed as pastor July 31, 1898, he served successively Lutheran churches, near Madelia, Minnesota, 1898-1902; West Henrietta, New York, 1902-1904; Rochester, New York, 1904 to 1910; and Sheboygan, Wisconsin, 1910-1951, when he entered retirement. He has contributed poems to the Lutheran Witness, Sunday School Times, Etude, Expositor, Northwestern Lutheran, and other church publications. He served as member of a subcommittee of the Committee on Hymnology and Liturgics for the Synodical Conference of North America, which edited The Lutheran Hymnal.

tr. 186, 392


D. M. Luthers Geistliche Lieder…, Berlin, 1653

532        Jesus Christ, my sure Defense ***ENDED HERE


Dach, Simon, 1605-59

Simon Dach was born July 29, 1605, in Memel, Prussia. He received his education at the cathedral school of Königsberg, the city school of Wittenberg, and the gymnasium of Magdeburg. From 1626 he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Königsberg, after which he served for a time as private tutor until 1633, when be became teacher at the cathedral school and assistant superintendent of same in 1636. Three years later he was appointed professor of poetry at the university. He was repeatedly elected dean of the faculty in the department of philosophy, and in 1656 and 1657 he served as rector of the university. Dach died April 15, 1659, in Königsberg.

During the Thirty Years’ War East Prussia suffered less than the other provinces of Germany. This was due to the armistice entered into by Gustavus Adolphus with the King of Poland. The city of Königsberg became a haven of refuge for many, so that science and culture were permitted to flourish. Here also the cause of Evangelical hymn writing received a great impetus. In this school of hymn poets of Königsberg Simon Dach was the leading figure. He wrote upwards of 165 hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DACH, Simon (1605-1659), was born July 29, 1605, at Memel, seventy-two miles northeast of Königsberg, Prussia. He first attended the Domschule at Königsberg, studying theology and philosophy, leaving, however, for Wittenberg, when a pestilence broke out. Later he went to school at Magdeburg. In 1633 Dach became affiliated with the Domschule at Königsberg, teaching philosophy and theology. He was often physically unwell. This fact together with a meager income hindered his work to a great degree. However, he found a bosom friend in Roberthin, with whose financial aid Dach was able to spend less time teaching and more time writing poetry. He was the most gifted of a group of prominent Prussian theologians, scientists, and poets known as the Königsberg School. In 1636, the same year in which he became assistant rector at the Königsberg Domschule, Dach wrote the folk-song “Ännchen von Tharau ist, die mir gefällt,” dedicating the same to the daughter of the pastor of Tharau, whom he had courted in vain. The poem was written in Plattdeutsch. Through the influence of Roberthin, Dach was appointed professor of poetry at Königsberg in 1639. After receiving a grant of land through Roberthin, Dach in 1641 married the daughter of a court official by the name of Pohl. The death of Roberthin in 1648 caused Dach to turn from secular to religious poetry. He now began his hymn writing, which did not cease until after he had written over 150 hymns. He died April 15, 1659. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

414, 526


Dachstein, Wolfgang, c. 1487-1553




Dahle, John, 1853-1931



setting: 111, 144


Daman, William, 1540-91

DAMAN, William (c. 1580). “One of her Majesties Musicians,” Daman was among the first to set the English Psalms to tunes and had a complete series published by John Bull, citizen and goldsmith of London, in 1579. He helped to popularize the C. M. tune.



Danish sources

104, 401, 437


Danish, 1830



Darwall, John, 1731-89

The melody (Darwall) was composed in 1770 by Rev. John Darwall (b. 1731, England, d. 1789). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DARWALL, John (1731-1789), was born at Haughton, Staffordshire, England, where he was baptized, January 13, 1731; received his education at Manchester School and at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1756; took holy orders and in 1769 became Vicar of Walsall, Staffordshire, where he remained until his death December 18, 1789. He composed 150 tunes for the metrical psalms. The tunes were not published as a collection, but a number were taken into the hymnals of the Church.



Daume, F. P., 1910


tr. 182


Davids Himlisch Harffen, Nürnberg, 1581




Davids Psalmen, Amsterdam, 1684




Day, George Henry, 1883-1966




Dayman, Edward Arthur, 1807-90

Edward Arthur Dayman was born July 11, 1807, in Padstow, Cornwall, England. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he received honors and was made a fellow. In 1835 he began his activity as a pastor; became rector of Shillingstone in 1842, and in 1862, prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral. He was one of the editors for The Sarum Hymnal, and, besides the above mentioned original hymns, he contributed a number of good translations for that work. Dayman died in 1890. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DAYMAN, Edward Arthur (1807-1890), was born at Padstow, Cornwall, July 11, 1807, the third son of John Dayman of Mambury, North Devon. He was educated at Blundell’s School, Tiverton, Devon, and Exeter College, Oxon. For some time he was Fellow and Tutor of his College and Pro-Proctor in 1835. After taking holy orders in 1835 he became examiner for the University Scholarship for Latin in 1838 and in 1840 Senior Proctor of the University. In 1862 he became Honorable Canon of Bitton in Sarum Cathedral. His works include Modern Infidelity, 1861, and Essay on Inspiration, 1864. He was joint editor with Earl Nelson and Bishop Woodford of the Sarum Hymnal, 1868. He also contributed several translations from the Latin to The Hymnary, 1872. He died at Shillingstone in 1890.



Dearmer, Percy, 1867-1936

Percy Dearmer was born February 27, 1867, in London. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ’s Church, Oxford. In 1901 he became vicar of St. Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, London. From 1891 he was the secretary for the London division of “The Christian Social Union.” Dearmer wrote The Parson’s Hand Book (first edition, 1899) and other works. He was one of the editors for The English Hymnal, which appeared in 1906. For this work he brought many valuable contributions in a series of translations and original hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

Percy Dearmer was born in London, 1867, and was educated at Westminster School and at Christ Church College, Oxford. He has served in London since 1891 as secretary of the London division of the Christian Social Union, also as preacher, author, and translator. He was a member of the committee which prepared The English Hymnal of 1906. To this edition he contributed several translations and a number of original hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DEARMER, Percy (1867-1936), was born in London, February 26, 1867, and was educated at Westminster School and at Christ Church, Oxford. He served as vicar of St. Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, from 1901 to 1915. Dearmer was secretary of the London branch of the Christian Social Union from 1891 to 1912, and, after the first World War, became Professor of Ecclesiastical Art at Kings College, London, and in 1931 canon of Westminster. Dearmer is the author of a number of works in hymnology and liturgics, and was an editor of the English Hymnal, 1906, and of Songs of Praise, 1925 and 1931, and with Martin Shaw of Songs of Praise Discussed, 1933. He died at London, May 29, 1936.

tr. 76, 436


Decius, Nikolaus, c. 1458-after 1546

Nicholas Decius (Hovesch, von Hofe, or Tech) was born in the village of Hofe in the southwestern part of Saxony. The year of his birth is not known. He became a monk and was appointed abbot of the cloister of Stetersburg, near Wolfenbüttel. Being attracted by the Lutheran teaching, he gave up his office of abbot and, upon the invitation of Gottschalk Crusius, came to Brunswick in 1521. Here he was made a teacher in the school of Catharine and Egidius. When Crusius had prepared the Evangelical Lutheran Order of Service for the city, Decius undertook the task of drilling a four-part chorus to lead the singing of the Lutheran hymns. This brought on a great following for the Lutheran services. Two years later he moved to Stettin, the capital city of Pomerania, urged by the Lutheran preacher, Paul of Rhodes. The success of these two men so inflamed the Catholics of Stettin that they tried to incite Duke Bugislav against them. He was at that time absent from the city. As several of his councillors were friendly to the Lutherans, the duke did not care to meddle in the dispute. He died September 30, 1523, before his return from the diet of Nürnberg. Even before that time his councillors had arranged that two Lutheran preachers should be permitted to conduct services during the hours of the day when there was no Catholic worship. They were permitted both to preach and to administer holy communion according to the Lutheran doctrine; Paul of Rhodes in the Church of St. James, and Decius in the Church of St. Nicholas. From that time on the Lutheran faith made steady progress and in 1535 the two preachers were appointed regular pastors in their respective churches. The Reformation had won. Decius labored not only as a preacher, but took an active part in the development of church song in his congregation. But he died at an early age, March 21, 1541. His death came so suddenly and without previous sickness, that the rumor spread that he had been poisoned by the Catholics. (H. Nutzhorn, from E. E. Koch’s Geschichte des Kirchenlieds.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DECIUS, Nikolaus (1490?-1541), was probably a native of Hof in Upper Franconia, Bavaria. He became a monk and in 1519 provost of the cloister at Steterburg, near Wolfenbüttel. At the beginning of the Reformation he was converted to Lutheranism, and in 1522 he left Steterburg and went to Brunswick, where he became a master in the St. Katherine and Egidien School there. In 1523 Decius was invited by the burgesses of Stettin to work as evangelical preacher there with Paulus von Rhode. He became preacher at the church of St. Nicholas in 1526, when von Rhode was installed at St. Jacobs. He died suddenly at Stettin on March 2, 1541. The suddenness of his death gave rise to the rumor that his Roman Catholic enemies had poisoned him. The suspicion, however, lacks confirmation. Decius seems to have been a popular preacher and a good musician. His work was carried on under constant opposition from the Church of Rome.

35, 41

35, 41, 71


DeGarmeaux, Mark, b. 1958

tr. 295, 430

setting: 355


Den danske Psalmebog, Hans Thomissøn, 1532-73 (see Thomissøn, Hans)

365, 586


Denicke, David, 1603-80

Gesenius was an accomplished and influential theologian, a famous preacher, and distinguished himself by his efforts to further the catechetical instruction of children in his district. Together with D. Denicke he edited The Hannoverian Hymn Books of 1646-1660.—Johann Gerhard, the noted theologian, used the fifth stanza of this hymn every day as a means of reminding himself of the suffering and death of Jesus. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DENICKE, David (1603-1680), was born at Zittau, Saxony, on January 31, 1603. He studied philosophy and law at the universities of Wittenberg and Jena and then was tutor in law for a time at Königsberg. After that Denicke traveled through Holland, England, and France. In 1629 he became tutor to the sons of Duke Georg of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1639 he was appointed director of the foundation of Bursfeld, and in 1642 he became a member of the Consistory at Hanover, where he died on April 1, 1680. Denicke was coeditor with J. Gesenius of various Hanoverian hymn-books published between the years 1646-1659. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Detterer, Frederic W., 1861-93


tr. 579


Deutsch Kirchenamt, Strassburg, 1525


219, 322, 591


Distler, Hugo, 1908-42




Dix, William Chatterton, 1837-98

William Chatterton Dix was born June 14, 1837, in Bristol. His father, John Dix, a doctor by profession, was known also as the author of The Life of Chatterton. The son, William, was educated for the commercial field. Concerning his life there is but little to relate. For some time he served as an insurance officer. But he has written many fine hymns: Altar Songs, Verses on the Holy Eucharist, 1867; Vision of All Saints, 1871; Songs for Christmas and Easter, and several others. Many of these have found a place in- various hymnals. About 40 of his hymns are in common use in England and America. Among his devotional writings may be mentioned, Light, and The Risen Life, 1883; a treatise on the proper training of children: The Pattern Life. Dix died in 1898. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DIX, William Chatterton (1837-1898), son of John Dix, a surgeon of Bristol, was born in that city on June 14, 1837. He was educated at the Grammar School there for a mercantile life. Later he became manager in a marine insurance company in Glasgow. He was a scholarly layman. Several of his hymns are translated from the Greek. About 40 of his hymns are still in use. He wrote Altar Songs, 1867, Verses on the Holy Eucharist, 1867, and Vision of All Saints, 1871. He died at Clifton, September 9, 1898. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


145, 168, 413


Doan, Gilbert E., b. 1930


tr. 415


Doane, George Washington, 1799-1859

George Washington Doane, D.D., was born May 27, 1799, in Trenton, N. J. He was educated at Union College, New York state. Being ordained in 1821, he became assistant pastor of Trinity Church, New York, until 1824; the same year, professor at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut; rector of Trinity Church, Boston, 1828; bishop of New Jersey, 1832. He founded St. Mary’s Hall, Burlington, 1837, and Burlington College, Burlington, 1846. Doane died in 1859. He possessed a talented, cultured, energetic, and warmhearted personality. He was one of the great leaders in the Episcopal Church of his time. In 1824 he published Songs by the Way, an excellent little collection of hymns, which appeared later in several enlarged editions. Doane’s complete works were published 1860, in four volumes. Songs by the [day (1824) contains many very good hymns. The two hymns commonly considered the best in this collection are “Softly now the light of day” (L. H. 561) and the present hymn. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DOANE, George Washington (1700-1859), was born at Trenton, New Jersey, May 27, 1799. He graduated from Union College, Schenectady, New York, in 1818 entered the Protestant Episcopal ministry in 1821; served as assistant minister at Trinity Church in New York until 1824; as professor at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, until 1821; and as rector of Trinity Church in Boston from 1828 to 1832. He was made bishop of New Jersey in 1832. He founded St. Mary’s Hall Burlington, in 1837 and Burlington College in 1846. He died April 27, 1859. He published Songs by the Way in 1824. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


363, 504


Doddridge, Philip, 1702-51

Philip Doddridge was born 1702, in London. His father was an oil dealer, and his grandfather was a minister. The Duchess of Bedford offered to pay for his university education, in order that he might become a minister in the Church of England, but the offer was rejected. He was educated at a Non-Conformist seminary under the leadership of a certain Mr. Jennings. Then he served as pastor for a few years, until 1729, when he took up his real life work upon being appointed professor and president of the Theological Seminary of Northampton. While in this position, he also served as pastor of the Congregational Church of the city. He performed his duties with faithfulness and zeal until 1751, when he was compelled to go south to seek relief from the tubercular disease which had seized him. He died the same year in Lisbon.

Two hundred students from England, Scotland, and Holland received their education under Doddridge, and the majority of them became Dissenter preachers. The various subjects on which he lectured testify to his versatility and learning. He served as instructor in Hebrew, Greek, algebra, philosophy, and logic, besides the regular theological studies. He was also very productive as a writer. The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul is his principal work. He ranks as one of the most important hymnwriters of England, not because he has written hymns of strictly first rank, but because many of his hymns are sung wherever the English language is used. The greater number of his hymns were written expressly for the use of his congregation and were sung after his sermons. Doddridge saw very few of his hymns printed. Manuscript copies were made for his church, and these copies were in continual circulation. They were finally gathered, edited, and printed by his disciple, Job Orton, in 1755, under the title, Hymns Founded on Various Texts in the Holy Scriptures. They have not the force and fulness of Watts’ hymns, but they are characterized by a simplicity and warmth which is lacking in many of the hymns of his great contemporary, and further, they bear witness to deep Christian experience. Doddridge gained fame as a divine and author, and was an intimate friend of Watts, Whitefield, and other leading men of his day. He received his degree of doctor of theology from the university of Aberdeen. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DODDRIDGE, Philip (1702-1751), was born in London on June 26, 1702, the last of the twenty children. He was a sickly child, and his life was despaired of when young. All twenty children, except Philip and a sister, died in infancy. Doddridge’s grandfather was one of the ministers ejected under the Act of Uniformity. His father, Daniel, was a London oilman. Both parents died in 1715. His maternal grandfather was the Rev. John Bauman of Prague, Bohemia, who was exiled on account of his faith and came to London. His mother often sang to him the hymns of the Lutheran Church during his boyhood. After his parents death he came under the care of the Rev. Samuel Clark at St. Albans. In 1718 he united with the Church. At the suggestion of his uncle, who was steward for the Duke of Bedford, the Dowager Duchess of Bedford offered Doddridge a university education for ordination in the Church of England, but Doddridge entered Mr. Jenning’s Nonconformist Seminary at Kibworth instead. In 1730 he was ordained and in the same year married Mercy Maris, a lady of superior qualities. They had nine children. In 1723 Doddridge was chosen pastor at Kibworth. In 1729 he was appointed preceptor and divine to the Castle Hill Meeting at North Hampton. About two hundred pupils from England, Scotland, and Holland were prepared in his seminary, chiefly for the dissenting ministry, but partly for professions. The wide range of subjects - daily readings in Hebrew and Greek, algebra, trigonometry, Watts’s logic, outline of philosophy and copious theology - is itself a proof of DoddrIdge’s learning. In 1735 he received the degree of D. D. from the University of Aberdeen. At the funeral of his old pastor, the Reverend Samuel Clark, he contracted a cold which developed into pulmonary consumption. In the last stage of consumption he sailed for Lisbon, where he died October 26, 1751. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


109, 323


Donne, John, 1573-1631




Döring, Carl August, 1783-1844

Carl August Döring was born January 22, 1783, in Mark-Alvensleben, Magdeburg. He attended school at Magdeburg, until his 19th year, when he went to Halle to study theology. He was disappointed in his studies under the influence of the rationalistic teachers, and his mind turned to the study of classic poetry. Having concluded his studies there, he served as a teacher in Waldenburg, in Silesia, and later in Magdeburg. Here he again met the shoemaker, Ruben, of the congregation of the Moravian Brethren. He had stayed in his home during his school days in Magdeburg. In the religious gatherings, which now were conducted at the home of this shoemaker, Döring was brought to a deeper insight into Holy Scriptures and also to a true conversion and a living faith. The school at Magdeburg was closed by Napoleon in 1810. Döring then became family tutor in Helmsdorf, near Eisleben. In 1814 he was appointed afternoon preacher at St. Peter’s Church, Magdeburg, and in 1815 he became archdeacon of St. Andrew’s Church at Eisleben. There he carried on blessed work, visiting his parishioners, conducting Bible classes, and distributing sacred literature. In 1816 he was called to the pastorate of the Lutheran church at Elberfeld, where he made great progress in establishing the so-called “Mission Societies.” On account of overexertion he began to suffer from lung disease, from which he died in 1844. He is one of the best and most prolific hymn writers of the 19th century. His hymns give expression to an intense love of the Lord, but many of them show signs of having been produced hastily and without much attention to detail. The greater number of his hymns were published in Christliches Haus-Gesangbuch, of which the first part appeared in 1821, and the second part in 1830. Döring wrote in all about 1,200 hymns. Three of them have been translated into English. In Landstad’s Hymnal No. 364 is by Döring. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Douglas, C. Winfred, 1867-1944


setting: 270


Døving, Carl, 1867-1937

DØVING, Carl (1867-1937), was born at Norddalen, Norway, on March 21, 1867. He received private instruction from Bishop N. Astrup, missionary to South Africa. He served as a teacher in the Schreuder Mission before he emigrated to America in 1890. Here he attended Luther College (A. B. 1903) and Luther Seminary (C. T. 1896). He held pastorates at Red Wing, Minnesota, Montevideo, Minnesota, and Brooklyn, New York. His last charge was that of city missionary in Chicago. Döving served on the Hymnary Committee of the Norwegian Lutheran Church for years. He made extensive researches in the field of hymnology, especially in the English translations of German and Scandinavian hymns. While in the process of this study, he gathered an extensive library on these subjects. This library is now at Luther College, Decorah, Iowa. Döving is the author of many original translations, of which 32 are found in the Lutheran Hymnary. He died on October 2, 1937. He was an outstanding linguist. There were infirmary patients whom he visited as missionary in Chicago with whom he conversed in German, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and Greek. By means of his great collection of hymnals he was able to establish the following facts concerning the translations of some of the church’s great hymns: that Luther’s “A Mighty Fortress” has been translated into 183 languages; “Rock of Ages” into 150; “Nearer, my God, to Thee,” into 142; “Just as I am,” into 131; “Abide with me,” into 131; “O come, all ye faithful” into 125; “Jesus, Lover of my soul,” into 116, “What a Friend,” into 110; “Onward, Christian soldiers,” into 108; and “Jesus, lead Thou on,” into 104. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


tr. 44, 131, 142, 150, 211, 259, 268, 365, 368, 457, 462, 493, 495, 510, 514, 585


Dowland, John, 1563-1626




Drese, Adam, 1620-1701

Drese was born in Weimar, 1620, and died 1701, in Arnstadt. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DRESE, Adam (1620-1701), was born in Thuringia, December 15, 1620, probably at Weimar; he studied music at Warsaw under Marco Scacchi; was director at Weimar from 1655; and afterwards held similar appointments to the Duke of Brunswick, and at Arnstadt, where he died, February 15, 1701, shortly before J. S. Bach came there. The following occurs in the notice of Drese’s death in the Arnstadt church records: On the 15th of February, 1701, at 10 o’clock in the evening, Herr Adam Drese fell asleep in God. . . . Age, 80 years, 2 months. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



Dretzel, Kornelius Heinrich, 1705-73

Cornelius Heinrich Dretzel (1698-1775) was a composer and organist in Nürnberg. He edited, in 1731, his Choralbuch, containing a large number of new tunes, including 43 of his own. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns] [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

DRETZEL, Kornelius Heinrich (1705-1773), was born at Nürnberg and served successively as organist of the churches of St. Egide, St. Laurentius, and St. Sébald, all in his native town. He was organist in the last-named church till he died in 1773. He published his chorale collection, Des evangelischen Zions musikalische Harmonie, Nürnberg, in 1731, which was the most complete collection of its kind published up to that time. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

226, 242


Dudley-Smith, Timothy, 1976




Dulcimer, or New York Collection of Sacred Music, 1850


setting: 170


Duncan, Mary Lundie, 1814-40




Dwight, John Sullivan, 1813-93, st. 2

This hymn was revised by John Sullivan Dwight, born in Boston, May 13. 1812 (d. 1893), and educated at Harvard, and at Cambridge Theological College.

He became a Congregational minister and later an editor. This form of the hymn appeared in 1844. The melody bears a resemblance to several melodies of earlier date, beginning with an air attributed to Dr. John Bull, 1619. In the second half of the 18th century it became popular in France, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DWIGHT, John Sullivan (1813-1893), was born in Boston, May 13, 1813. He studied for the Unitarian ministry at Harvard Divinity School, graduated in 1836, and was ordained in the same year as pastor of the Unitarian congregation at Northampton, Massachusetts. He gave up his office to study literature and music. In 1852 he established Dwight’s Journal of Music, which he owned and edited for thirty years. He died September 5, 1893. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Dykes, John Bacchus, 1823-76

John Bacchus Dykes (b. 1823, d. 1876), scholar of St. Catharine’s, Cambridge; ordained in 1847; precentor of Durham Cathedral, 1849; and in 1862 vicar of St. Oswald’s, Durham. Dykes was one of the leaders of the new school of tune-writers in the latter half of the Nineteenth Century. (H. A. & M. Hist. Ed.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

DYKES, John Bacchus (1823-1876), born at Hull, England, on March 10, 1823, was the son of a banker and the grandson of a well-known evangelical clergyman. Bacchus was the Christian name of his maternal grandfather. At the age of ten Dykes was assistant organist at his grandfather’s church. He was first educated at Wakefleld and then became a scholar of St. Catherine’s, Cambridge. As an undergraduate at St. Catherine’s College, Dykes helped found the University Musical Society with William Thomson, afterwards Lord Kelvin. In 1847 Dykes took holy orders and two years later was appointed precentor of Durham Cathedral. In 1861 the University of Durham conferred on him the musical doctorate. The following year Dykes was appointed Vicar of St. Oswald’s in Durham. Here Dykes tried to introduce his High-church tendencies. In this he was opposed by his bishop. When Dykes applied to his bishop for a curate to assist him, he was told that he would get one only if he promised never to wear a colored stole, never to have anything to do with incense, and never to stand with his back to the congregation except when arranging the bread for communion. Dykes considered this action illegal, but the courts upheld the bishop. His biographer says that Dykes never recovered from this shock and that this killed him. He suffered a breakdown of his health in 1875 and died on January 22, 1876. Dykes wrote 300 hymn-tunes. Benson in his The English Hymn says that Dykes, together with Monk, Elvey, Gauntlett, and others, crystallized the musical tendencies of the time into a definite form of Anglican hymn-tune, with restrained worship and yet appealing to the taste of the people. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


15, 278, 418, 557