Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Handbook

— Biographies and Sources —


Ebeling, Johann Georg, 1637-76

Johann Georg Ebeling, born July, 1637, in Lüneburg, became (1662) Johann Crüger’s successor as cantor of the St. Nicholas Church in Berlin, where Paul Gerhardt at that time was minister. From 1868 Ebeling was professor of music at the Caroline-Gymnasium in Stettin, where he died in 1676, the year of Paul Gerhardt’s death. Among Ebeling’s works may be mentioned Pauli Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten. 1666-1667. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

EBELING, Johann Georg (1620-1676), like Johann Crüger (q. v.), one of the “singers of Paul Gerhardt,” was born in Lüneburg in July, 1620. He became cantor of St. Nicholas Church, Berlin, in 1662, and director of music at the College of St. Nicholas (Schulkollege am grauen Kloster) there, succeeding Johann Crüger. In 1668 he was appointed Professor of Music at the College of St. Charles (Caroline - Gymnasium), Stettin, where he died in 1676, the same year in which Paul Gerhardt died. His chief publication is Pauli Gerhardt Geistliche Andachten, 1666-67. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


57, 377


Eber, Paul, 1511-69

Paul Eber was born November 8, 1511, in Kitzingen, where his father was a tailor. In 1523 he entered the gymnasium in Ansbach. But his health failed and he was compelled to go home. On the way home he was thrown from his horse and, being dragged by the stirrup for a great distance, he suffered injuries which made him a cripple for life. From 1525 to 1532 he remained in the gymnasium of Nürnberg, and here, under the guidance of able teachers, he laid the foundation for his extensive learning. In 1532 he entered the University of Wittenberg. After a few years of study he was appointed tutor in philosophy. In 1544 he was made professor of Latin, and in 1557 professor of Hebrew and also court preacher. The following year he was elected general superintendent or bishop of Saxony. He died in 1569. Eber was a very intimate friend of Melanchthon, who frequently asked his advice on matters of importance. On this account Eber was jokingly called “Philippi Repertorium.” Luther, also, placed great confidence in Eber’s ability. When he in a conversation with his friends dwelt upon the distress and trials which would befall Germany at his departure, he turned to Eber and said: “Your name is Paul. Therefore I admonish you to follow Paul’s example and to put forth all effort to keep and defend the doctrine which St. Paul has given us.” In 1560 Melanchthon died, and Eber suffered much unpleasantness because he, like Melanchthon, was suspected of leaning towards Calvinism on the doctrine of the Lord’s Supper. At the colloquium of Altenburg, in 1569, during the synergistic controversies, the assertion was made that the Wittenberg theologians ought not to be accepted into communion nor be permitted to serve as sponsors. Eber returned to his home grievously hurt and sick at heart. Shortly after this his wife died. Scarcely half a year afterwards Eber followed her. The principle according to which he regulated his life was expressed in the 105th verse of Psalm 119: “Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light upon my path.” Paul Eber ranks second to Luther as hymn-writer of the Wittenberg school. He wrote in all 17 hymns. A number of these were written especially for his children and set to Lutheran melodies. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

EBER, Paul (1511-1569), son of Johannes Eber, master tailor at Kitzingen, Bavaria, was born at Kitzingen, November 8, 1511. He was sent in 1523 to the Gymnasium at Ansbach, but, forced by illness to return home, was thrown from his horse and dragged more than a mile, remaining as a consequence deformed for life. In 1525 he entered the St. Lorenz School at Nürnberg and on June 1, 1532, he matriculated at the University of Wittenberg, his teachers being Luther and Melanchthon. In 1527 he became tutor in the Philosophical Faculty and four years later was appointed regular professor, first of Latin and then of Physics. In 1557 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and preacher of the Castle Church at Wittenberg. He acted as Melanchthon’s secretary at the Colloquy at Worms, but he left for Wittenberg at Christmas. On September 4, 1558, he succeeded Bugenhagen as municipal preacher and general superintendent of the electoral circuit. In 1559 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Wittenberg. He died at Wittenberg December 10, 1569. Paul Eber, next to Luther, was the best poet of the Wittenberg school. His hymns, some of them written for his own children to sing to Luther’s melodies, are distinguished for their childlike spirit and beautiful simplicity. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


238, 257, 530


Eccard, Johann, 1553-1611

The melody, which is of secular origin, was arranged for church use by Johannes Eccard, born 1553 in Mühlhausen. He was a noted church musician. After working for some time in his native city, he moved to Königsberg, and finally became “kapellmeister” in Berlin. He died in 1611. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Edwards, John D., 1806-85




Ein schön geistlich Gesangbuch, Jena, 1609 (See Vulpius, Melchior)



Ellerton, John, 1826-93

John Ellerton was born December 16, 1826, in London. He was educated at King William’s College, on the Isle of Man, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1849. The following year he was ordained and appointed assistant pastor of Easebourne. After serving in a number of places, he was, in 1876, appointed to the rectorship of Barnes and in 1886 to the pastorate of White Rodney, in which place he remained until his death in Torquay, June 15, 1893. Together with Wm. Walsham How, Ellerton edited Church Hymns, 1871, and in 1881 he published Notes and illustrations of Church Hymns. As early as 1859 he had published Hymns f or Schools and Bible Classes. He has written in all about 50 hymns and 10 or more translations from the Latin. Nearly all his hymns are in common use and a good number of them are very popular. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ELLERTON, John (1826-1893), son of George Ellerton, was born in London on December 16, 1826. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated (B. A. ) in 1849 and (M. A. ) in 1854. After Ellerton took holy orders, he was successively Curate of Eastbourne, Sussex, 1850; Brighton, and Lecturer of St. Peters, Brighton, 1852; Vicar of Crewe Green and Chaplain to Lord Crewe, 1860; Rector of Hinstock, 1872; of Barnes, 1876; and of White Roding, 1886. Ellerton’s prose works include The Holiest Manhood, 1882, and Our Infirmities, 1883. He was editor of Hymns for Schools and Bible Classes, Brighton, 1859, and coeditor of the S. P. C. K. Church Hymns, 1871. In 1881 Ellerton published his Notes and Illustrations of Church Hymns in a folio edition. Although in general the notes are full and accurate, those on the older hymns are too general; while they are useful for the general reading public, they are a disappointment to the hymnologist. John Ellerton wrote about 50 original hymns and translated about ten from the Latin. He died at Torqual in 1893. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



tr. 267


Elliott, Charlotte, 1789-1871

Charlotte Elliott was born March 18th, 1789, in Westfield Lodge, Brighton. The first thirty-two years of her life were spent mostly at Clapham. Later she moved to Brighton, where she remained until her death, September 22, 1871. Her acquaintance with Dr. Cesar Malan, of Geneva, had great influence upon the development of her spiritual life. She had a very weak constitution, in fact, from 1821 on she was an invalid, but just the same she managed to keep up considerable literary activity. She wrote about 150 hymns, of which many were printed in her brother’s hymn collection entitled: Psalms and Hymns for Public, Private, and Social Worship (by The Rev. H. V. Elliott, 18351848). The Invalid’s Hymn Book, originally edited by Miss Kierman, was revised in 1834 by Miss Elliott and appeared in many editions, to which she contributed in all 112 hymns. She also published Hours of Sorrow Cheered and Comforted, and several other minor works. She has few equals in the art of writing for the sick and the sorrowful. (See also under No. 447.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ELLIOTT, Charlotte (1789-1871), was the daughter of Charles Elliott, of Clapham and Brighton, England, and the granddaughter of the Rev. Henry Venn, an eminent Church of England divine. She was born March 18, 1789, and developed, at an early age, a passion for music and art. She was unusually well educated. At the age of thirty-two she became an invalid and remained such, at times suffering great pain, until her death on September 22, 1871, at Brighton. She was a member of the Church of England. Her hymns have in them a tenderness and sweetness born of much suffering and resignation. Although an invalid, she devoted her life to writing. Her Invalid’s Hymn Book was published in various editions from 1834 to 1854 and contained altogether 115 of her hymns. Other poetic works written by her and containing hymns were: Hours of Sorrow, 1836; Hymns for a Week, 1839; Thoughts in Verse on Sacred Subjects, 1869. Some of her hymns were printed in her brothers somewhat important Psalms and Hymns for Public, Private, and Social Worship, 1835. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Elliott, Julia Anne (Marshall), ?-1841

JULIA ANNE ELLIOTT, daughter of John J Marshall, was married, 1833, to the Rev. H. W. Elliott (a brother of the poetess Charlotte Elliott). She died in 1841. Her hymns, 11 in number, were printed in Rev. H. W. Elliott’s Psalms and Hymns in 1835, first anonymously; her initials were added in the later edition of 1839. Her hymns are marked by deep religious spirit and fine poetic taste. This hymn has as its first line in Elliott’s Psalms and Hymns: “Great Creator, who this day.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ELLIOTT, Julia Anne, née Marshall (?-1841), daughter of John Marshall of Hallsteads, Ullswater, on a visit to Brighton with her father, met and afterwards, in 1833, married the Rev. Henry Venn Elliott, brother of Charlotte Elliott. She contributed, anonymously, eleven hymns to her husband’s collection, Psalms and Hymns, 1835. In later editions her initials were added. She died in 1841 shortly after the birth of her fifth child. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Elven, Cornelius, 1791-1873

Cornelius Elven was born 1797 in Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, where he lived and labored throughout his life. He was pastor of the local Baptist congregation of that place for fifty years. He was an intimate friend of C. H. Spurgeon, who valued his friendship very highly and for whom Elven frequently preached. After the death (1873) of Mr. Elven, Spurgeon often referred to him and praised him highly as an able and faithful servant of the Lord, an intensely fervent and sincere preacher filled with the fire of the Spirit. The melody (St. Cross) was composed by J. B. Dykes. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ELVEN, Cornelius (1791-1873), was born in St. Edmunds, Suffolk, where he lived and labored throughout his life. He was a pastor of the Baptist Church at Bury St. Edmunds for fifty years. When he took his charge, it numbered only forty members, but increased to more than 600. He was a very good friend of C. H. Spurgeon, who valued his friendship very highly and said of Elven that he was a faithful servant of the Lord, and an intensely fervent and sincere preacher, filled with the fire of the spirit. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Elvey, George Job, 1816-93

The melody (Urswicke) was composed by Sir G. J. Elvey, Mus. Doc., born 1816, England, died 1893. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

ELVEY, George Job (18161893), was born in Canterbury, England, on March 27, 1816, and baptized in the Presbyterian Chapel there. He was educated as a chorister at the Cathedral School and later studied under Dr. Crotch at the Royal Academy of Music in London. When Elvey was only nineteen, he was appointed organist and master of the boys at St. George’s, Windsor, after which his well-known tune is named. In 1838 Elvey graduated from Oxford as Bachelor of Music and two years later was granted the Doctorate. As organist of St. George’s for forty-seven years, Elvey had charge of the music for many important events connected with the royal house. He was knighted in 1871 after his composition of a Festival March for the wedding of Princess Louise. Elvey died at Windlesham, Surrey, December 9, 1893, and was buried outside the west front of St. George’s Chapel. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


22, 55, 403, 461


Emskirchner Choralbuch, Leipzig, 1756



Enchiridion, Erfurt, 1524

2, 224, 267, 276, 317, 440


Enchiridion, Erfurt, 1527



Engelbretsdotter, Dorothe, 1634-1716

Dorothe Engelbretsdatter, born in Bergen January 16, 1634, was a daughter of Pastor Engelbret Jørgensen. In 1652 she was married to her father’s chaplain, Ambrosius Hardenbeck, who later succeeded his father-in-law as pastor at Bergen’s Cathedral Church and died as provost. In 1678 Dorothe Engelbretsdatter published “Siælens Sang-Offer, indholdende gudelige Sange paa de fornemste Fester”, which was reprinted many times, even as recently as 1782, partly in connection with her “Taare-Offer, gudelige Siæle til Underviiszning” (translated in 1727 into Swedish by “a prominent woman”), a versified rendering of Pastor Peder Møller’s devotion book “Trøst- og Taarekilde” (1677-79), which dealt with the tearful, the exasperating, the kissing, and the anointing Mary Magdalene. In 1690 she published in addition “Tvende ny aandelige Psalmer”, the morning hymn: “Nu er det Tid at vaage” and the evening hymn “Dagen viger og gaar bort” (Psalmebog for Kirke og Hjem Nr. 74); in 1698 “Et christeligt Valet fra Verden og Længsel efter Himmelen” and 1705 “Tvende meget smucke ny Psalmer”: “Om nu mit Hoved end svemmed i Vand” and “De, som er til Guds Rige fød”. She died in Bergen February 19, 1716, after having lost her husband and all her 9 children, difficult experiences, which partly gave her poetry a darker character. Her contemporaries set great praise on the Norwegian poetess’ spiritual poems, and Kingo wrote: “Get now hence, ye nine most famous goddesses, to bow low before one of the women of the North!” “But,” N. M. Petersen says: “the honor faded long ago. Her gentle biblical hymns are without enthusiasm, and her occasional verse which should be cheerful or even satirical, is tasteless”. Dorothe Engelbretdatter’s thoughts are often trivial, and her preference for foreign words has made the greatest part of her “Sangeoffer” distasteful to later times.

[Kirke Leksikon for Norden, Dr. Fredrik Nielsen, Aarhus: Jydsk Forlags-Forretning, 1900, translated by MED]



English sources

126, 269


English sources

145, 183, 223, 228, 281, 574


Erbaulicher … Christenschatz, Basel, 1745

199, 222, 240


Essay on the Church Plainchant, 1782



Etlich Cristlich lider, Wittenberg,1524

227, 241, 374, 378, 392


Eugenie, Princess of Sweden, 1830-89



Evangelical Lutheran Hymn-Book, 1912

tr. 405, 564


Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, st. 3

tr. 190


Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary, 1996

179, 330, 471

tr. 490, 585

setting: 537


Ewing, Alexander, 1830-95

The melody (Ewing) is composed by Lieut.-Colonel Alexander Ewing, born 1830, Scotland; died 1895. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

EWING, Alexander (1830-1895), son of Alexander Ewing, M. D., was born in the parish of Old Machar, Aberdeen, January 3, 1830; educated for the law at Marischal College, Aberdeen, but entered the army in 1855; attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel; received a medal for services in China during the campaign of 1869; married in 1867 Juliana Horatia Gatty, second daughter of the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D. D., vicar of Ecclesfield, and subdean of York Cathedral. (She was well known for her writings for the young; died at Bath, 1885. ) He studied music at Heidelberg; was associated with the Haydn Society of Aberdeen, and the Harmonie Choir under William Carnie. He died at Taunton in 1895. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




F. B. P., 16th century

The only mark of authorship [of this hymn] is “F. B. P.”, which letters have been the object of many guesses. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Faber, Frederick William, 1814-63

Frederick William Faber was born June 28, 1815, in Yorkshire, England. The family descended from the Huguenots. His parents died while he was yet young. Faber was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he received his degree of bachelor of arts in 1836. He was for a time Fellow at University College. After taking the theological examination he became rector of Eton, Huntingdonshire, 1843. Here he came under the influence of Cardinal Newman, and joined the Catholic Church in 1846. When he came to London in 1849, he organized an order called The Oratorians, or Priests of the Congregations of St. Philipp Neri. Here he labored until his death, in 1863. His hymns, 150 in number, were published after he had joined the Catholic Church. A few of his hymns are justly held in high esteem. Among these may be mentioned the four which have been taken up in The Lutheran Hymnary. His Hymns were published in one volume in 1862. Faber was an idealist. He is spoken of as a pious and amiable personality. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Falckner, Justus, 1672-1723

Justus Falckner, born November 22, 1672, in Langenreinsdorf, Saxony, was the fourth son of Daniel Falckner, a Lutheran preacher of the same city. Justus studied theology in Halle under A. H. Francke. Having completed his studies he, however, shrank from entering the ministry, fearing the heavy responsibilities attached to the office. Together with his elder brother, Daniel, who had lately returned from America, Justus, at Rotterdam, in 1700, became engaged in real estate business in Pennsylvania. The following year they sold 10,000 acres of Pennsylvania land to the preacher, Andreas Rudman, and other Swedes in the Manatawny district. This acquaintance with Rev. A. Rudman led to Falckner’s decision to enter the ministry. On November 24, 1703, he was ordained in the Swedish Wicacoa church in Philadelphia. The officiating pastors were Rudman, T. A. Björk, and Anders Sandel. He was called to the pastorate among the Dutch pioneers of the Manatawny district, near New Hannover, ‘but shortly after he was appointed to take Rudman’s place in the Lutheran congregations of New York and Albany. He labored there zealously and faithfully. In addition to these congregations he served temporarily the three congregations in New Jersey and two (Loonenburg and Neuburg) in New York state.

The records state that the New York charge became vacant. It is not definitely known whether this was due to Falckner’s death or to his removal to some other charge. Michael Knoll, who became pastor in New York 1732, expressed the opinion that Falckner died in the year 1723. But from the ministerial records of the congregation it seems rather probable that he withdrew to another charge in New Jersey, where the work would be less strenuous.

Justus Falckner was the first Lutheran pastor to be ordained in America. Likewise, the catechism prepared by him is the first Lutheran book to be published on this continent. It was written in the Dutch language and published in New York in 1708 under the title: Grondlycke Onderricht, etc., and has a supplement of three hymns translated from the German. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FALCKNER, Justus (1672-1723), born on November 22, 1672, at Langenreinsdorf, Crimmitschau, Zwickau, Saxony, was the son of a Lutheran pastor. He studied theology under A. H. Francke at the University of Halle. As he had a feeling of inadequacy for the ministerial office, he turned to a secular calling instead, and on April 23, 1700, accepted the power of attorney for the sale of Penn’s lands in Pennsylvania. It was a Swedish pastor, Andrew Rudmann, who persuaded him to accept the call to the Lutheran Church in New York. Falckner was ordained to the ministry in the Swedish Church at Wicaco, Philadelphia, on November 24, 1703, the first Lutheran clergyman ordained in America. He became pastor of the Lutheran congregations at New York and Albany, where he had a parish extending over two hundred miles. He also ministered to three congregations in New Jersey. In 1704 Falckner published a catechism, Grondelycke Onderricht, which was the first Lutheran book to be published on this continent. He died in 1723. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Fawcett, John, 1740-1817

John Fawcett, Baptist preacher of England, was born January 6, 1739 (or 1740), in Lidget Green, near Bradford, Yorkshire. At the age of 16 he came under the influence of Whitefield and joined the Methodists, but three years later he became a member of the Baptist church of Bradford. In 1765 he was ordained to the ministry and was installed in the Baptist congregation of Wainsgate, Yorkshire. Seven years later, in 1772, he was called to London to succeed the famous Dr. J. Gills of Carter’s Lane. He accepted the call. After delivering his farewell sermon to the congregation at Wainsgate, six loads of household goods were brought up near the church preparatory to his leaving for London. But the congregation was not ready to bid him farewell. Men, women, and children thronged about their pastor and his family and wept. Fawcett and his wife also were moved to tears at the sight. Finally his wife said, “O John, I cannot endure this; I do not understand how we can leave this place.” “No, you are right,” he replied, “neither shall we leave.” Then all their belongings were unpacked and put in their old places. It has been thought that Fawcett upon this occasion wrote the famous hymn, “Blest be the tie that binds,” which is such a favorite in Reformed circles. In 1777 the congregation built a new church near Heddon Bridge, and about the same time he opened a school in Brearly Hall, where he lived. In 1793 he was offered the position of president of the Baptist academy at Bristol, but declined. In 1811 he received his diploma of doctor of theology from America. He died in 1817, at the age of 78. Dr. Fawcett wrote many treatises on theological themes, and a large number of hymns and spiritual songs. The greater number of his hymns are found in the collection, Hymns adapted to the Circumstances of Public Worship and Private Devotion, Leeds, Wright and Son, 1782, in all 166 hymns. About 20 of these are in general use. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FAWCETT, John (1740-1817), was born on January 16, 1740, at Lidget Green, Yorks, England; first joined the Methodists through Geo. Whitefield’s influence, but then became a Baptist and was ordained to the ministry in 1765 at Wainsgate and afterwards served a church at Hebden Bridge, Yorks, where he labored for the rest of his life, although he received some very important calls, one to succeed the famous Dr. J. Gill at the Carter Lane Church, London; another to become president of the Baptist Academy at Bristol. He was author of a number of religious prose works, including a devotional commentary on the Bible, and a large amount of sacred poetry. His Hymns adapted to the Circumstances of Public Worship and Private Devotions, 1782, contains 166 of his hymns. He died at Hebden Bridge in 1817. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


232, 420, 588


Fick, Herman, 1822-85

FICK, Hermann (1822-1885), outstanding poet among the fathers of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States, was brought to America by Wyneken’s Appeal in 1846; became pastor at New Melle, Mo. ; in 1850 removed to the pastorate at Bremen, a suburb of St. Louis; in 1854 he became pastor of Trinity Lutheran Church, Detroit. Ill health forced him to resign this large charge. He then served our church at Collinsville, Illinois, for thirteen years, and spent the last thirteen years of his life as pastor in Boston, Massachusetts. He published his Lutherbuch and contributed articles and poems to Der Lutheraner, and other German language periodicals. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Filitz, Friedrich, 1804-76

The composer of the melody, Friedrich Filitz, was born in Arnstadt, Thüringen. He studied philosophy and received his doctor’s degree in this science. He edited Vierstimmiges Choralbuch zu Kirchen- und Hausgebrauch, and also four-part settings for Bunsen’s allgemeine Gesang- und Gebetbuch. He collaborated with Erk in editing many chorals of the most famous masters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Dr. Filitz resided in Berlin and München. He died in Bonn, 1876. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FILITZ, Friedrich (1804-1876), was born at Arnstadt, in Thuringia, March 16, 1804. He studied philosophy, in which he received the degree of doctor; resided at Berlin from 1843 to 1847, where he worked with Ludwig Erck, removing in the latter year to Munich, where he died, December 7, 1876. He published his Vierstimmiges Choralbuch, Berlin, 1847, a book of four-part tunes for Bunsen’s Allgemeines Gesang- und Gebetbuch. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Findlater, Sarah, née Borthwick, 1823-1907

FINDLATER, Sarah, née Borthwick (1823-1907), was born November 26, 1823, sister of Jane Borthwick (q. v.) in Edinburgh. She married the Rev. Eric John Findlater, Scottish Free Church minister at Lochernhead, Perthshire. With her sister Jane she translated from the German Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1854, 53 of the 122 translations being from her pen. She died at Torquay in 1907. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


Also see Jane Laurie Borthwick

tr. 543


Fischer, Christoph. See VISCHER, Christoph


Fischer, Eberhard Ludwig, 1695-1773

FISCHER, Eberhard Ludwig (1695-1773), was born at Aichelberg in Württemberg on August 6, 1695. He was coeditor of the Württemberger Gesangbuch of 1741 with Dr. Tafinger. He was prelate of Adelberg and Consistorialrath at Hohenasperg when he died in 1773. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Fortunatus, Venantius Honorius C., c. 530-609

FORTUNATUS, Venantius Honorius Clementianus (c.530-609), was born at Ceneda, near Treviso, Italy. At an early age he was converted to Christianity at Aqulleia; received his education at Ravenna and Milan. While a student at Ravenna, where he excelled in oratory and poetry, Fortunatus almost became blind. He recovered his sight, as he believed, miraculously, by anointing his eyes with some oil sent by a friend, Gregory of Tours, which the latter had taken from a lamp that burned before the altar of St. Martin of Tours in a church of Ravenna. This induced Fortunatus to make a pilgrimage (565) to the shrine of St. Martin at Tours, and this pilgrimage resulted in his spending the rest of his life in Gaul. Possessed of a pleasing personality, fond of high living, endowed with poetic gifts, he was popular in all circles. In Gaul he formed a romantic but platonic friendship with Queen Rhadegunda, the daughter of Bertharius, king of the Thuringians, and the wife, though separated from him, of Lothair I (Clothaire), king of Neustria. Rhadegunda had left her throne to found the convent of St. Croix at Poitiers. She induced Fortunatus to enter the service of the Church. To her and Agnes, Rhadegunda’s former maid and appointed by her head of the convent, he composed the most extravagant poetic effusions. After Rhadegunda’s death Fortunatus was made bishop of Poitiers in 599. A quarto edition of Fortunatus’s Works was published in Rome in 1786. This work includes his Life of St. Martin of Tours. Fortunatus wrote many hymns; however, his Hymns for all the Festivals of the Christian Year is lost. Many of his hymns are to the Virgin. Indeed, Fortunatus was the first of the Christian poets to begin that worship of the Virgin Mary which rose to a passion and sank to idolatry. He was one of the last who, amid the advancing tide of barbarism, retained anything of the old classic culture. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


273, 298, 398


Foundling Chapel collection, 1796 (See Praise the Lord, Ye Heavens…)



Franck, Johann, 1618-77

Johann Franck was born June 1, 1618, in Guben, Brandenburg. His father, an attorney and councillor of the city, died two years later, and the son was adopted by the city judge, Adam Tielckau, who was married to his aunt, and who provided for his education. Johann first attended the school at Guben and later the gymnasium at Cottbus, but he had to leave the latter city on account of the Thirty Years’ War. He then continued his studies at Stettin and Thorn, until 1638, when he enrolled as a student of law in the university of Königsberg, the only German university which continued its work somewhat unhindered during the years of the great war. In Königsberg, Franck also developed his poetic talent under the guidance of the pious and prominent professor, Simon Dach. He enjoyed the companionship of Heinrich Held, who also became a hymn writer. He likewise associated with a number of other Christian young men, who kept aloof from the common excesses of student life. In 1640 he returned to Guben at the earnest request of his mother. Here he later entered the law profession and very soon became well and favorably known on account of his poetic and professional ability. He was first elected alderman, then burgomaster, and, finally, a member of the landtag. Franck died in 1677. Two hundred years later a memorial was erected to him in the form of a marble tablet set into the wall of the principal church of the city.

As a writer of hymns Franck is ranked next after Paul Gerhardt during this period. Of his 110 hymns, which are more subjective than Gerhardt’s and the earlier Lutheran hymns, over one half are in common use. The present hymn, together with “Jesus, priceless treasure” (Jesus, du min Glæde; Jesu, meine Freude) and “Lord, to Thee I make confession” (Herre, jeg har handlet ilde; Herr, ich habe missgehandelt) have been translated into many languages, and are always mentioned among the best church hymns. Franck’s hymns have not the objective character so prominent in the earlier Lutheran church hymns. But they breathe a deep desire for union with Christ, deep piety, and pure, Christian sentiment, and they are characterized by marked pathos and lyric beauty. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FRANCK, Johann (1618-1677), was the son of Johann Franck, an advocate and councilor at Guben, Brandenburg, where Johann Franck, Jr., was born on June 1, 1618. After his fathers death in 1620, Johann was adopted by his uncle, the town judge Adam Tielckau, who sent him for his education to the schools at Guben, Cottbus Stettin, and Thorn. In 1638 Franck matriculated as student of law at the University of Königsberg, the only German university left undisturbed by the Thirty Years War Here his religious spirit, his love of nature, and his friendship with such men as Simon Dach and Heinrich Held, preserved him from sharing in the excesses of his fellow-students. The former, a pious and prominent professor of poetry, guided the development of Franck’s poetic talent. Upon his mothers request Franck returned to Guben in 1640 to be with her in those times of war during which Guben frequently suffered from the presence of both Swedish and Saxon troops. In May, 1645, Franck commenced practice as a lawyer and very soon became well and favorably known on account of his poetic and professional ability. In 1648 he was elected burgess and councilor and in 1661 burgomaster. In 1671 he was appointed the deputy from Guben to the Landtag (Diet) of Lower Lusatia. His hymns were published as Geistliche Sion, Guben, 1674. On the bicentenary of his death, June 18, 1877, a monumental tablet to his memory was affixed to the outer wall of the Stadtkirche at Guben. Johann Franck is ranked next to Paul Gerhardt as a hymn-writer of his period. Of his 110 hymns, which are more subjective than Gerhardt’s and the earlier Lutheran hymns, over one half are in use. Franck marks the transition from the obiective form of church song prevalent till his time, to the more individual and mystical type His leading idea is the union of the soul with its Savior. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


151, 263, 264, 328, 450


Franck, Melchior, c. 1573-1639, based on

Melchior Franck, born in Zittau, 1580. In 1604 he became chorus director of Coburg, where he died June 1, 1639. Franck composed a number of church tunes of rank. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FRANCK, Melchior (c. 1575-1639), was born in Zittau and studied at Nürnberg. In 1601 he served as “Musiker des Rates” in that city. Two or three years later he was called as Hofkapellmeister to Koburg, where he remained until his death, June 1, 1639. His first compositions were published in his Contrapuneti Compositi, 1602, and his later works in many other collections, the best known of which is Geistlicher Musicalischer Lustgarten, 1616. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


setting: 541


Franck, Salomo, 1659-1725

Salomo Franck was born in Weimar March 6, 1659. His father, Jacob Franck, was the financial secretary in that place. It is supposed that Salomo studied in Jena, after which he occupied a position in Zwickau. In 1689 he served as administration secretary of Arnstadt, and from 1697 and on he held a similar position in Jena. In 1702 he was appointed consistorial secretary, librarian, and curator in his native city, where he died July 11, 1725. Salomo Franck was a member of the so-called “Fruitbearing Society” and author of a series of poems, mostly occasional songs, long since forgotten. His hymns, on the other hand, rank among the best of his time. They are churchly and pervaded by a spirit of deep piety and are characterized by their beautiful forms of expression. Of his 330 hymns a large number are still in use in Germany and in other lands. They are published in his Geistliche Poesie, Weimar, 1685, and in his Geist- und Weltliche Poesie (Vol. I, Jena, 1711; Vol. II, Jena, 1716). At least 8 of his hymns have been translated into English; some of these have received several renderings. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FRANCK, Salomo (1659-1725), son of Jakob Franck, was born at Weimar on March 6, 1659. Little is known of his early history. He probably studied at Jena. He held several governmental appointments during his life. He also had severe family affIictions to bear. He died at Weimar, July 11, 1725. Franck also wrote much secular poetry. He was a member of the famous Fruit-bearing Society. As a hymn-writer he is distinguished for his ease, correctness, and adaptation to popular understanding and to congregational singing. His hymns total 330. He published Geistliche Poesie, Weimar, 1685; Geist- und Weltliche Poesien, Jena, Vol. I, 1711, Vol. II, 1716. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Frank, Peter, 1616-75

FRANK, Peter (1616-1675), was born at Schleusingen on September 27, 1616, son of a merchant. He studied theology at Jena about 1636. In 1640 he was at the University at Altorf. Frank worked as a Hofmeister from 1643 to 1645, when he received a position as a pastor. As such he served churches in Thüngen, Rossfeld, Rodach, Gleussen, and Herreth. He died June 22, 1675.



Franzmann, Martin H., 1907-76

FRANZMANN, Martin (1907- ), was born at Lake City, Minnesota, January 29,1907, son of the Rev. William Franzmann and Else, née Griebling; educated at Northwestern College, Watertown, Wisconsin (B. A. 1928), and the Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary, Thiensville, Wisconsin, and Chicago University; he was professor at Northwestern College (1936-1946) and at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis (1946- ). [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


72, 428, 431

tr. 555 Rise again, ye lion-hearted


Franzmann, Werner H., 1905-96




Frederiksen, Johan, 1603-41

Johan Frederiksen was born 1603, in Flensborg, where his father was a minister. While a student he accompanied a number of young noblemen on journeys into foreign countries, and gained considerable fame as a writer of Latin poetry. Having completed his studies for the degree of master of arts in Copenhagen, he became rector of Kjøge; later of Malmø. In 1639 he moved to Roskilde, where he was married to Marie Glob. He died in 1641, at the age of 38. (Skaar.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Fremder, Alfred, b. 1920



setting: 598


French carol



French sources

110, 116, 298


Freylinghausen, Johann Anastasius, 1670-1739

Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen was born December 2, 1670, in Gandersheim of the principality of Wolfenbüttel. During his early years, while under the instruction of his pious mother, the story of the last judgment so impressed him that he often lay awake during the night weeping as he thought of the torments which the condemned had to undergo. At the age of 12 years he was sent to his grandfather, Polenius of Eimbeck, who was a minister. Here he was given intensive training in Bible study and in memorizing hymns, a work which bore good fruit in his later years. During the year 1689, at the university of Jena, he was led by one of his colleagues to study the writings of Luther, Arndt, and Spener. Their works had a decisive influence upon his development. The fame of Francke’s preaching spread also to Jena and, during Easter of 1691, Freylinghausen and some of his friends went to Erfurt to hear him. Francke’s and Breithaupt’s sermons made a deep impression upon him, and he decided to accept an offer from Breithaupt, to reside with him and take employment as family tutor.

The following year he went with Francke to Halle to complete his studies, and towards the close of 1693 he returned to Gandersheim, where he served for some time as preacher and tutor. In 1695 he became Francke’s assistant at Halle. Here he preached at the vesper services, conducted midweek meetings, taught classes in the orphanage school, and delivered lectures on homiletics to the students. He served in this position without salary until 1715. Francke had to use all his income for the support of his institutions of mercy. But when Francke, in 1715, was called to the pastorate of Ulrichskirche in Halle, Freylinghausen became his successor as pastor for the suburb of Glauka. He was now married to Francke’s only daughter. He had been her sponsor, and she was even named after him, Johanna Anastasia. After Francke’s death he became his successor at the Ulrichskirche and the director of the orphanage “pädagogium.” No one was better qualified to continue Francke’s work. Under his management the “institutions” flourished as never before. But his physical strength was waning. In 1725 he suffered a stroke, which later recurred several times. In 1737 his tongue became paralyzed, so that he could no longer preach. He died February 12, 1739.

Freylinghausen’s essential importance lies in the fact that he was the most eminent hymn writer of the pietistic movement. He wrote 44 hymns. They are all characterized by true Christian feeling, sound, vigorous piety, borne out of deep Christian experience. They are Scriptural and clear, with a rich variety of rhythm, melody, and meter. “Many of his hymns,” says Dr. P. Lange, “are especially marked by confessional purity, sincere feeling, clear thought, and beauty of expression.” He materially aided the cause of church song by compiling and editing large collections of hymns, and by gathering and composing melodies. It was especially through the latter that the pietistic hymns were given their unique character, so very different from the spirit of the choral. Many of these melodies are not suitable for church use. Freylinghausen’s Geistreiches Gesangbuch, containing the best pietistic hymns, besides many older hymns, was published 1704, in Hamburg, and later appeared in many editions. The first edition contains 683 hymns and 173 melodies. Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch has 815 hymns and 153 melodies. These two collections were combined and published in 1741, by G. A. Francke. The combined volume contained 1,582 hymns and 600 melodies. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FREYLINGHAUSEN, Johann Anastasius (1670-1739), born at Gandersheim, Brunswick, Germany, on December 2, 1670; studied at Jena, Erfurt, and at Halle. In 1695 he became August Herman Francke’s assistant at Glaucha, and when Francke became pastor at St. Ulrich’s, in Halle, 1715, Freylinghausen became his colleague. In the same year he married Francke’s only daughter, Anastasia, whose sponsor he was. After Francke’s death in 1727, he succeeded him as pastor of St. Ulrich’s and Director of Francke’s Institutions. He died February 12, 1739. He published the Geistreiches Gesangbuch, 1704, and Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch, 1704. He himself composed twenty-two melodies. As hymn-writer Freylinghausen was the best of the Pietistic School. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]



75, 92, 156, 182, 252, 484


Freystein, Johann Burkhard, 1671-1718

FREYSTEIN, Johann Burkhard (1671-1718), a pious lawyer, was born at Weissenfels, April 18, 1671, the son of A. S. Freystein, vice-chancellor of Duke August of Saxony and inspector of the Gymnasium at Weissenfels. He received his education at the University of Leipzig where he studied law, mathematics, philosophy, and architecture. He resided for some time at Berlin and Halle, and then went to Dresden as an assistant to a lawyer. After graduating (LL. D. at Jena in 1695) he began an independent legal practice at Dresden. In 1703 he became Rath at Gotha, but returned to Dresden in 1709 as Hof- and Justizrath, and was also, in 1713, appointed a member of the Board of Works. Enfeebled by his professional labors, Freystein died of dropsy at Dresden, April 1, 1718. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Friese, Heinrich, c. 1712

FRIESE, Heinrich. We have been unable to find any details of Friese’s life except that he published a Choralbuch in 1712. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Fritsch, Ahasverus, 1629-1701

FRITSCH, Ahasverus (1629-1701), was born on December 16, 1629, at Mücheln on the Geissel near Merseburg. His father was Andreas Fritsch, mayor of the town, and his mother was Esther, née Hesse. Ahasverus was the eighth of eleven children. His early youth was spent during the turbulous period of the Thirty Years War. When he was only two years old, his parents had to flee to Voigtland, as their native town was burned. During his youth Fritsch fled from robbers, plunderers, and soldiers; he hid in graves, cellars, and bushes; often he was robbed of the very clothes he was wearing. When he was fourteen, Fritsch lost his father. Nevertheless, his mother sent him to the Gymnasium at Halle. Here he worked manually and intellectually for six years until July, 1650, when he went to Jena and studied under the learned jurist J. Georg Adam Struve. Poverty greatly interrupted his education, but Fritsch finished his course in 1654. In 1657 he became the tutor of the young Count Albert Anton von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. He was greatly admired by the count’s family and received various preferments. In October, 1661, he was made a Doctor of Law by the University of Jena. Later he became chancellor of the university and president of the consistory of Rudolstadt. In February of 1662 he married, and his wife. Dorothea Maria, bore him four sons and five daughters. Seven of the children outlived him. Fritsch was a good statesman and the editor of two hymn-collections and a writer on antiquarian, legal, and other subjects. The hymn “Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen,” is ascribed to him. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


107, 446


Füger, Caspar, d. 1592

FÜGER (Fuger, Fugger), Caspar(?). Two Lutheran clergymen of this name apparently father and son, lived in Dresden in the 16th century. The elder (d. 1592; resided at Torgau for some time and was later court preacher at Dresden to Duke Heinrich. Various works appeared under his name between 1564 and 1592. The younger (d. July 24, 1617) was apparently born at Dresden, where he was later third master and then Conrector in the Kreuzschule. He was subsequently ordained diaconus. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Funcke, Friedrich, 1642-99

Friedrich Funcke was born in Nossen, Hartzen, and was baptized March 27, 1642. He attended the schools of Freiberg and Dresden. He also studied music and was appointed cantor at Perleberg and later at Lüneburg. In 1694 he was given a pastorate near Lüneburg and died there in 1699. He revised the Lüneburg Hymnary, adding 43 melodies and 7 hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

FUNCKE, Friedrich (1642-1699), was born at Nossen in the Harz, baptized on March 27, 1642, and was educated at Freiberg and Dresden. Later he became cantor at Perleberg. In 1664 he was appointed Stadt-Cantor at Lüneburg and in 1694 pastor at Römstadt, where he died. Funcke revised the Lüneberg Gesangbuch in 1686 and contributed 43 melodies and 7 hymns of his own. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Funk, J., Genuine Church Music, 1832




Gabriel’s Vineyard Songs, 1892, st. 3




Gardiner, William, 1770-1853

William Gardiner’s Sacred Melodies, 1815 (1st ed. 1812). Gardiner was an English musician (born. 1770; d. 1853). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GARDINER, William (1770-1853), born at Leicester, was a stocking manufacturer greatly interested in music. In youth, under the nom de plume W. G. Leicester he published a collection of his own songs and duets. In 1815 he published Sacred Melodies in six volumes, containing tunes of the best masters. He also published The Music of Nature, Music and Friends. He died at Leicester in 1853. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Garve, Karl Bernard, 1763-1841

Carl Bernhard Garve was born January 24, 1763, in Jeinsen, near Hannover, where his father was a farmer. He was educated in the schools of the Moravian Brethren at Zeist, Neuwied, Niesky, and at the Seminary of Barby. In 1784 he was appointed teacher at the pädagogium of Niesky, and five years later at the institution at Barby. Later he was ordained and served as minister in congregations of the Moravian Brethren—from 1799 in Amsterdam, from 1801 in Ebersdorf, in Berlin, 1809, and in Neusalz an der Oder from 1816. In 1836 he retired from the ministry and spent the last years of his life in Herrnhut, where he died June 21, 1841.

Garve was one of the most prominent hymnwriters among the Moravian Brethren. All his hymns are aglow with intense love for the Savior. They are Scriptural and are characterized by beauty of expression. Many of his hymns are extensively used in the Lutheran Church. Thirty-six were included in the Berlin Hymnary of 1829. Most of Garve’s hymns were published in his Christliche Gesänge, Görlitz, 1825, containing 303 hymns; and in Brüdergesänge, 1827, with 65 hymns, especially intended for the Moravian Church. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GARVE, Karl Bernard (1763-1841), was born January 24, 1763, in Jeinsen near Hanover, where his father was a farmer. He was educated in the schools of the Moravian Brethren at Zeist, Neuweid, Niesky, and at the seminary of Barby. In 1784 he was appointed teacher at the pädagogium of Niesky and five years later at Barby. He served as minister in various congregations of the Brethren from 1799 until 1836, when he retired from the ministry. He spent the rest of his years at Herrnhut, where he died June 21, 1841. Garve was one of the leading hymn-writers among the Moravian Brethren. His hymns are aglow with his intense love for the Savior, Scriptural, beautiful in expression, forceful, and elegant in style. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Gastoldi, Giovanni Giacomo, c. 1556-c. 1622




Gastorius, Severus, 1646-82

While Rodigast was in Jena, 1675, he wrote this hymn for his sick friend, Severus Gastorius, who was cantor at that place. Gastorius wrote the melody for the hymn. It was printed in the Hannover Hymn Book, Göttingen, 1676. It became the favorite hymn of Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, and he requested that this hymn should be sung at his funeral. This was done June 11, 1840. The present English translation was taken from Miss Winkworth’s Chorale Book for England published 1863. Two stanzas have been omitted. There are at least 14 English translations. The melody employed in The Lutheran Hymnary was composed by L. M. Lindeman and was printed in his Koralbog, 1877, for the hymn, “I Jesu søger jeg min Fred” (Landst. 298; In Jesus I find rest and peace, L. H. 418). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GASTORIUS, Severus (c. 1650), was Cantor in Jena, 1675, and there wrote his famous tune for the hymn of his friend Samuel Rodigast. (See Hymn No. 521. ) Zahn holds that von Winterfeld’s view that Johann Paschelbel wrote the tune is not tenable. No further details on Gastorius’s life are available. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


519, 536


Gauntlett, Henry J., 1805-76

The melody (Hereford) is written by Henry John Gauntlett, born in Wellington, England, 1805. He studied law originally, and was admitted a member of the legal profession in 1830. In 1827 he became organist of St. Olave’s, Southwark, London, an appointment which he held for more than 20 years. Dr. Gauntlett died February 21, 1876. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Gebauer, Johan Christian, 1808-84

The melody [Maria, hun var en Jomfru reen] was written by the Danish organist and composer, Johan Christian Gebauer (b. Copenhagen, 1808; d. ibid. 1884), for the hymn “Du Herre Krist, min Frelser est.” The first four measures are repeated. Lindeman’s Koralbog has two melodies, the one being taken from Kingo’s Gradual, 1699, the other being composed by Lindeman. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Geistliche Deutsche Lieder, Frankfurt a. O., 1601




Geistliche gesangk Buchleyn, Wittenberg, J. Klug, 1524


33, 48, 247, 327


Geistliche Kirchengesäng, Köln, 1623


16, 389


Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen, Magdeburg, 1540




Geistliche Lieder, Leipzig, 1589


511, 578


Geistliche Lieder, Wittenberg, J. Klug

24, 25, 173, 190, 225, 234, 255, 316, 344, 368, 396, 492, 538, 589


Geistliche Psalmen, Nürnberg, 1611



Geistliche Volkslieder, Paderborn, 1850



Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, Darmstadt, 1698

89, 159


Geistreiches Gesangbuch, 4th edition, Halle, 1708

setting: 252


Geistreiches Gesangbuch, Darmstadt, 1698



Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott, 1715-69

Christian Fürchtegott Gellert, son of the minister, Christian Gellert, in Hainichen, Saxony, was born July 4, 1715. He first attended school in Meissen. After having completed his theological studies at the University of Leipzig, he served for a time as his father’s assistant. The story is told that he had to make use of his sermon manuscript in the pulpit, as he could not depend upon his memory. This aroused dissatisfaction and criticism, because the practice of using sermon manuscripts was not in accord with the traditions of the Lutheran Church. Gellert then sought another vocation and resumed his studies at the university. He received his master’s degree in 1744, and the following year was appointed lecturer in the faculty of philosophy, and in 1751, extraordinary professor of philosophy. He lectured on poetry, rhetoric, and moral philosophy. In 1761 he was offered a position as ordinary professor, but declined, since he did not feel strong enough. He always suffered from a weak constitution, and in his later years suffered much from hypochondria. Gellert died in Leipzig December 13, 1769.

As a teacher and as a man, Gellert was highly esteemed and loved by the students, both on account of his exceptional ability and on account of the keen interest which he showed toward his pupils, among whom were Goethe and Lessing. As an author and hymn writer, he gained considerable fame. His Fables (first series, 1746, second, 1748), spirited and humorous, won him universal recognition and gave him a place among the German classics. He ranks high also as a writer of hymns. He is, indeed, not free from the rationalistic, moralizing tendencies of his age; yet in general his hymns are Scriptural and characterized by deep Christian piety and pathos, in spite of the fact that many of them are more didactic than lyric. He always prepared to write his hymns through fervent prayer. His Geistliche Oden und Lieder mentioned above appeared in many editions, and many of these hymns have been translated into English and other languages. Fifteen of Gellert’s hymns were translated by Birgitte Boye for Guldberg’s Hymnal. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GELLERT, Christian Fürchtegott (1715-1769), the son of a Lutheran pastor, was born at Hainichen in the Saxon Harz on July 4, 1715. After preliminary schooling at Meissen, he entered the University of Leipzig to pursue theological studies. After his graduation Gellert became an assistant to his father. However, he was forced to turn to some other profession since he had a poor memory and the use of a manuscript in the pulpit was not tolerated in the Lutheran Church in his day. Consequently he became the domestic tutor of the sons of Herr von Lüttichau in 1739, but two years later returned to Leipzig to superintend the studies of a nephew at the university and to resume his own studies. Gellert graduated in 1744 (M. A. ) in the faculty of Belles Lettres. The following year Gellert became private tutor or lecturer in the philosophical faculty. As a professor Gellert was most popular with his students, among whom were Goethe and Lessing. He took a warm interest in his students personal conduct and welfare. His lectures were much favored, not only because of their charm of style, but also because of their substance and high moral tone. Gellert’s Fables, spirited and humorous, won him fame and universal recognition as a German classicist. In 1751 he was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy, and in this capacity he lectured on poetry, rhetoric, and moral philosophy. Ten years later he was offered an ordinary professorship, but declined because of ill health, having had a delicate constitution since childhood. After 1752 Gellert suffered greatly from hypochondria and died at Leipzig on December 13, 1769. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




General Selection of Spiritual Songs, Lynchburg, 1811



Gerhardt, Paul, 1607-76

Paul Gerhardt was born March 12, 1607, in Gräfenhaynichen, a village between Halle and Wittenberg. His father, Christian Gerhardt, who was mayor of the village, died before Paul had reached maturity. Paul Gerhardt’s youth was spent under the stress and suffering of the Thirty Years’ War. Otherwise there is little of note to relate from his early life. From 1622-1627 he attended school at Grimma. On the 2nd of January, 1628, he began the study of theology at the university of Wittenberg. This was in his twenty-first year. There is reason to suppose that he remained in Berlin until the first part of the year 1642; but there is very little reliable information on this period of his life. Germany was desolate and depopulated, and many of the younger theologians had to wait a long time before they could enter the active ministry. Thus Paul Gerhardt served for a number of years as family tutor in the home of Andreas Berthold, an attorney in Berlin. In the Christian atmosphere his gift of song began to develop and bear fruit. Many of his hymns were published in 1648 in Johann Crüger’s Praxis Pietatis Melica. Crüger was cantor and director of music in the church of St. Nicholas, where Gerhardt frequently preached. In 1651 he was called to Mittenwalde, a little town near Berlin, and entered upon his duties there the following year. Four years later he married Anna Maria Berthold. Their first child—a daughter—died in infancy. His office in Mittenwalde brought him only a scant income. Further, he experienced much unpleasantness from his colleague, deacon Allhorn, who was jealous of Gerhardt because he had been selected to the office of provost in preference to himself. Hence, Gerhardt gladly accepted the call from Berlin, in 1657, to become third assistant pastor of the church of St. Nicholas. His activity in Berlin gave him an opportunity to unfold his unusual gifts. He continued to write hymns. He was recognized as the most popular preacher in the city and gathered large audiences at his services. He also became famous for his philanthropy. He gave assistance to all the needy who came to his door. He was of a kindly temperament and bore up cheerfully under all trials. But he was also a most conscientious minister in matters of doctrine and confession.

At this time Prussia was ruled by Elector Friedrich Wilhelm the Great. The majority of the people were Lutherans, but the ruler himself was a Calvinist. There was bitter opposition between the ministers of the two churches, and they condemned each other’s doctrine in the most violent terms. Gerhardt, although as faithful and ardent a Lutheran as any one, used more moderate language, for which he gained the respect and esteem of many of the leaders among the Reformed, among whom may be mentioned Duchess Louise. The elector arranged conferences between the leading men of both parties in an attempt to bring about more unity or at least greater tolerance; but this did not bring the desired results. He became impatient and issued an edict forbidding the ministers to attack each other’s doctrine and confession, and later he required all the Lutheran ministers to sign a document compelling them to follow the order of the edict. No Lutheran minister who wished to remain true to his confession could agree to this. Several were thus compelled to leave their charges. Gerhardt, who was sick at the time, summoned the ministers of Berlin to his bedside and admonished them to stand firm and not to yield to the demands of the elector.

On the 9th of February, 1666, Gerhardt was called before the consistory and asked to sign the famous document. He was given one week’s time to consider the matter; but even before the meeting adjourned he declared that his decision in the matter would not be changed. Following this announcement, Gerhardt was deposed from his office. This caused great consternation and sorrow among his towns-people. Gerhardt, however, retained his calmness of mind and referred to the incident as his “Berlin martyrdom.” The matter became more serious when the authorities prohibited him even from conducting private meetings for worship in his own house. This grieved him very much. But other sorrows followed fast. At an earlier period he had lost three of his five children. During this time of trial one of his sons also died and his wife became seriously ill.

The Lutherans of Berlin disliked very much to see their beloved pastor deposed in this manner. Many petitions were sent to the elector by the citizens, by the laborers, by the town council, and even by the wife of the elector. The elector assumed a more favorable attitude towards Gerhardt, and January 9, 1667, he ordered him reinstated. But this did not make matters very much better. The messenger who brought in the news brought also an oral greeting from the elector, which expressed his conviction that Gerhardt, who was known for his moderation, would be able to appear and preach in harmony with the before mentioned edict of the elector. To agree to this would be just as binding upon his conscience as though he had signed the edict. This he expressed in writing to the magistrates as follows: “Whatever is done with a bad conscience, it is an abomination in the eyes of God and brings no blessing, but rather a curse upon the doer; neither I myself nor my congregation will be served in this manner.” Then, in 1667, the elector appointed a successor; but this preacher could not take up the work until the latter part of the following year, and until that time Gerhardt received the income from the office. After this he was supported by a number of charitable members of his congregation. His wife died at Eastertide, 1668. Only a son, six years of age, now remained with him. In May, 1669, he was called to the office of archdeacon of Lübben. He labored here for seven years with great success. Gerhardt died June 7, 1676. Here, in the latter period of his life, he found much comfort in the eighth verse of the hymn composed by himself: “Warum sollt’ ich mich denn grämen,” “Døden kan os ikke døde,” “Death cannot destroy forever” (L. H. 342, 4).

Death cannot destroy forever: From our fears, Cares and tears, Soon shall it deliver. Doors of grief and gloom it closes, While the soul, Free and whole, With the saints reposes.

A life-size painting of Gerhardt has been placed in the church of Lübben. The painting has this inscription: Theologus in cribro Satanae versatus (A theologian sifted in the sieve of Satan). Paul Gerhardt was an excellent pastor and one of the best, if not the best one, of the hymn writers of Germany. In the upbuilding of the German-Protestant Church Paul Gerhardt ranks second only to Luther as a hymnist. Wackernagel says: “In regard to their spiritual value, the hymns of Paul Gerhardt may be viewed from two opposite angles. His poems seem to reflect the transitional character of his times. His own subjective spiritual life began to assert itself besides giving expression to the Christian consciousness of the congregation. Thus he may be regarded as the last and at the same time the best of those poets who were rooted in confessional Christianity. Gerhardt concludes the list of ‘church poets’.” In conclusion we quote the following from Rudelbach: “Together with Paul Gerhardt, who on account of his faithfulness toward the Lutheran confession suffered himself to be deposed from office, all Lutheran Christians join in song, whether it be his hymns for children or his Christmas hymns—which in spirit rank beside those of Luther—or the hymns of sorrow and comfort at the cross of Christ, or hymns of prayer for the Holy Spirit, or when he appears on the side of God as the soldier of Christ and joyfully brings to others the comfort which the Lord has given unto him, or when he meditates upon Christian life, its beginning, progress and end, as it rests in the hand of God.”

Paul Gerhardt possesses a certain poetic richness, which by no means can be referred to his poetic individuality alone. It finds its fullest explanation only in the sincere Lutheran spirit with which he was imbued. It is by no means the case, as some of the modern writers have thought, that he was lacking in traditional Lutheran force; indeed, as the Thirty Years’ War, which in its campaigns and results brought so much suffering, produced many spiritual heroes, who took on the armor of the Lord; thus also Gerhardt, who himself had experienced many sufferings, took the harp of Zion and sang with a loud voice as follows:

Not fire, nor sword, nor thunder, Shall sever me from Thee; Though earth be rent asunder Thou’rt mine eternally: Not hunger, thirst, nor danger, Not pain, nor pinching want, Nor mighty princes’ anger, My fearless soul shall daunt.

No angel, and no gladness, No throne, no pomp, no show, No love, no hate, no sadness, No pain, no depth of woe, No scheme of man’s contrivance, Though it be great or small, Shall draw me from Thy guidance— Not one of these, nor all! [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GERHARDT, Paul (1607-1676). In the Lutheran church at Luebden in Germany there hangs a life-size painting of Paul Gerhardt. Beneath it is the inscription: “Theologus in cribro Satanae versatus” (A divine sifted in Satan’s sieve). That inscription may be said to epitomize the sad life-story of Germany’s great psalmist. Paul Gerhardt was born on March 12, 1607, in Gräfenhaynichen, a village between Halle and Wittenberg. His father was Christian Gerhardt, mayor of the village. He died before Paul reached maturity. During his youth Paul experienced much suffering because of the Thirty Years War that was raging. From 1622 to 1627 he attended school at Grimma. On January 2, 1628, he began the study of theology at the University of Wittenberg, where he remained until at least April, 1642, and then went to Berlin, where he became family tutor in the home of Andreas Barthold, an attorney. Here in a Christian atmosphere his gift of song began to develop and bear fruit. Many of Gerhardt’s hymns were published in 1648 in Johann Crüger’s Praxis Pietatis Melica (q. v.). In 1651 Gerhardt was called to Mittenwalde as provost. When he started his duties of his first settled position, Gerhardt was forty-four years old. Four years later he married Anna Maria Berthold. Their first child, a daughter, died in infancy. The income of the family was sparse. Gerhardt also experienced unpleasantness because of the jealousy of a colleague. In 1657 Gerhardt accepted a call to be third assistant pastor of the Church of St. Nicholas in Berlin. Here he continued to write hymns. Gerhardt was recognized as the most popular preacher in the city. Later he became known also for his philanthropy. At this time there was bitter opposition between the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Since Gerhardt was not as violent as others in condemning the opposition, he gained the respect and esteem of many of the leaders of the Reformed group, including the Duchess Louise. The elector Friedrich Wilhelm the Great, a Calvinist, arranged conferences between the leading men of both parties. But all such attempts failed, and finally the elector issued an edict forbidding ministers to attack each others doctrine and confession. Later he required all the Lutheran ministers to sign a document compelling them to follow the order of the edict. No Lutheran minister who wished to remain true to his confession could agree to this. Gerhardt believed that signing the document would be to compromise the faith. He was sick at the time, but nevertheless he summoned the Lutheran ministers to his bedside and admonished them to stand firm and not to yield to the demands of the elector. On February 9, 1666, Gerhardt was called before his own consistory and asked to sign the famous document. He was given a week in which to consider the matter, but he immediately said that he would not sign. Gerhardt was then deposed from office and even prohibited from conducting private meetings for worship in his own house. Gerhardt called this his Berlin martyrdom. Just before this unfortunate occurrence he had lost three of his five children, and now a son died, and his wife was seriously ill. Petitions from citizens, laborers, the town council, and even from the wife of the elector led the elector to reinstate Gerhardt on January 9, 1667. But the elector had done this with the understanding that Gerhardt would preach in harmony with the aforementioned edict. Under such a condition Gerhardt refused. In the same year the elector appointed Gerhardt’s successor. As he did not take up his work until late in 1668, Gerhardt received the income from the office until then. After that he was supported by charitable members of his congregation. Gerhardt’s wife died at Eastertide, 1668. Now only a son, aged six, remained. In May, 1669, Gerhardt was called to the offlce of archdeacon of Lübben. Here he labored for seven years with success until his death. Paul Gerhardt was an excellent pastor and one of the best, if not the best, of the hymn-writers of the Lutheran Church in Germany. He wrote 133 hymns in all. Not even the hymns of Martin Luther are used so generally throughout the Christian world as are those of Gerhardt. More of the beautiful lyrics of this sweet singer have found their way into the English language than the hymns of any other German hymn-writer, and with the passing of years their popularity increases rather than diminishes. In Gerhardt’s hymns is found the transition to the modern subjective note in hymnody. He died at Lübben, June 7, 1676. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


20, 52, 57, 94, 115, 128, 129, 152, 161, 208, 304, 331, 334, 335, 341, 372, 377, 400, 405, 448, 457, 517, 569


German sources

136, 507, 555, 578


German sources…103, 128, 131, 135, 136, 146, 150, 154, 175, 337, 399, 449, 490


Germanus of Constantinople, 634-734

St. Germanus (634-734) was a Greek hymnwriter and one of the most eminent defenders of image-worship. He was born in Constantinople and was a member of a noble family. He became Bishop of Cyzicus and later took part in the Synod of Constantinople (712), which adopted a resolution favoring Monothelitism (Monothelites, a sect which taught that Christ had two natures, but one will, the divine). But St. Germanus later condemned this doctrine. In 715 he was made patriarch of Constantinople. Despite vigorous opposition to the contrary, he was removed from this office in 730 by the iconoclastic emperor, Leo the Isaurian. Shortly afterwards he died at the age of 100 years. A number of his hymns have been translated into English by Dr. J. M. Neale. Among these the present hymn was included in his Hymns of the Eastern Church, 1862. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

St. Germanus of Constantinople, (634-734), was born in Constantinople of a patrician family. He was ordained there and subsequently became the Bishop of Cyzicus. He was present at the Synod of Constantinople in 712, which restored the Monothelite heresy, but in after years he condemned the heresy. In 715 he was made the Patriarch of Constantinople. In 730 St. Germanus was driven from that see, not without blows, for refusing to yield to the Iconoclastic Emperor, Leo III, the Isaurian. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Gesangbuch, Münster, 1677



Gesangbuch, Rudolstadt, 1688



Gesangbuch, Wittenberg, Klug, J., 1543



Gesangbuch…der Herzogl…, Württemberg, 1784


279, 485


Gesenius, Justus, 1601-73

Justus Gesenius, D. D., son of Joachim Gesenius, pastor at Esbeck, near Lauenstein, Hannover, was born at Esbeck, July 6, 1601. He studied at the universities of Helmstedt and Jena, receiving the degree of master of arts at the latter institution, 1628. In 1629 he became pastor of the church of St. Magnus, Brunswick; in 1636 court chaplain and preacher at the cathedral in Hildesheim; and in 1642 chief court preacher, “consistorialrath,” and general superintendent of Hannover. He died at Hannover September 18, 1673.

Gesenius was an accomplished and influential theologian, a famous preacher, and distinguished himself by his efforts to further the catechetical instruction of children in his district. Together with D. Denicke he edited The Hannoverian Hymn Books of 1646-1660.—Johann Gerhard, the noted theologian, used the fifth stanza of this hymn every day as a means of reminding himself of the suffering and death of Jesus. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GESENIUS, Justus (1601-1673), was the son of Joachim Gesenius, pastor at Essbeck, Hanover, where Justus was born on July 6, 1601. He studied theology at Helmstedt and Jena and was awarded his M. A. from the latter university in 1628. The following year Gesenius became pastor of St. Magnus’s Church at Brunswick. In 1636 he became court chaplain and preacher at the Cathedral in Hildesheim and in 1642 councilor and general superintendent of Hanover. Gesenius and David Denicke (q. v.) were coeditors of the Hanoverian hymn-books of 1646-1660. They did not give any of the authors names, and they recast many of the hymns according to the poetical canons of Martin Opitz. In some cases they destroyed very much, but their book was not as bad as the recasts of the rationalistic period. In spite of their shortcomings these hymnals met with favor and were widely used. Gesenius was an accomplished and influential theologian, a famous preacher, who distinguished himself by his efforts to further the catechetical instruction of the laity. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


276, 564


Gesius, Bartholomäus, c. 1555-1613

The melody is of German origin and has been ascribed to Bartholomäus Gesius, who in 1605 composed a hymn to which this melody was first set, namely, “Mein Seel, o Gott, musz loben dich.” In the Scandinavian countries this melody has been associated with the hymn “Jesu, din Ihukommelse” (Landst. 66), “Jesus, the very thought is sweet” (L. H. 154), “Jesu dulcis memoria.” Gesius (1555-1621) was cantor at Frankfurt an der Oder. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

208, 323, 324, 422, 432


Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn, Wittenberg, 1524


setting: 90


Giardini, Felice de, 1716-96

The melody (Italian Hymn) was composed by Felici de Giardini, an Italian musician born 1716, in Turin, Italy, and died 1796, in Moscow, Russia. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GIARDINI, Felice de (1716-1796), was born in Turin, Piedmont, Italy, on April 12, 1716. He studied singing, clavier, and harmony in Milan. He became a celebrated violinist in both Italy and Germany, made his London debut in 1750, where he became the leader and in 1856 impressario of the Italian Opera. Giardini afterwards served Sir William Hamilton, British ambassador to the Sardinian court at Naples. When he returned to London five years later, Giardini found that his popularity had waned considerably. He traveled to Moscow, hoping for better recognition, but was disappointed. He died there in poverty in 1796. Giardini composed a great number of operas, quartets, concertos, sonatas, and other pieces. Capricious in character, he seems to have had few friends and many enemies, but he is considered one of the greatest musicians of the 18th century. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


11, 12, 202


Gibbons, Orlando, 1583-1625

The melody (Gibbons) is by Orlando Gibbons (15831625). Gibbons was one of the most prominent English musicians and composers of his time. He was the first chorister of King’s College, Cambridge, and became, 1604, organist of Chapel Royal, and in 1623 organist of Westminster Abbey. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GIBBONS, Orlando (1583-1625), was born in Cambridge, England. He joined the choir of King’s College at 13 and at 21 became organist of the Chapel Royal. In 1619 he was King’s musician for the virginals, and after receiving his degree of Doctor of Music from Oxford in 1622, he was made organist of Westminster Abbey. He played the organ for the funeral of James I. He died at Canterbury on June 5, 1625, while preparing to attend Charles I at his marriage with Henrietta Maria of France. Gibbons was one of the greatest of the polyphonic writers. The tunes for Withe’rs Hymns and Songs of the Church, 1623, are from his pen. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Gieschen, H., 1899-1987


tr. 166


Gläser, Carl Gotthelf, 1784-1829

The melody (Azmon) was composed by Carl G. Gläser, born in 1784 at Weissenfels; died 1829, in Barmen, Germany. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GLÄSER, Carl Gotthelf (1784-1829), was born at Weissenfels, Germany, on May 4, 1784, was taught music by his father, and later attended St. Thomas’s School in Leipzig. In 1801 he began to study law at the Leipzig University, but he soon gave it up for music. He studied music under J. A. Hiller, A. E. Müller, and Campagnoli. He settled in Barmen, where he taught piano, violin, and voice. He was known as a director of choruses and composed many chorals and songs. He died April 16, 1829. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Goss, Sir John, 1800-81

The melody (Waterstock) was composed by John Goss (1800-1880). Sir John Goss studied music under Thomas Attwood and became his successor as organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, 1856-1872. Goss became a prominent church composer, editor of the Parochial Psalmodie, 1826, and music editor for Mercer’s Church Psalter and Hymn Book, 1854. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

The melody employed in The Lutheran Hymnary bears the name “Glad Tidings” and was composed by Sir John Goss, born 1800, in Fareham, England. At eleven years of age he became chorister in the Chapel Royal, and later studied organ music under Thomas Attwood. In 1838 he became successor of the latter as organist in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. John Goss has produced a great amount of church music, many hymn tunes, and choir anthems, which have gained universal favor. Goss died in 1880. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GOSS, Sir John (1800-1880), was born at Fareham, Hants, England, December 27, 1800; son of Joseph Goss, organist of that place. He became chorister in Chapel Royal under John Stafford Smith 1811, and was a pupil of Thomas Attwood. He was organist of St. Luke’s, Chelsea, 1824; organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1838, succeeding Thomas Attwood. He resigned in 1872 and received the honor of knighthood. He was also composer to the Chapel Royal from 1856 to 1872. He received his Mus. D., Cambridge, in 1876. He died at Brixton, London, May 10, 1880. He was a composer of much excellent church music. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


8, 67


Gounod, Charles François, 1818-93

GOUNOD, Charles François (1818-1893), was born in Paris, June 17, 1818; entered the Conservatoire in 1836, studying under Halévy and others, gaining the Grand Prix de Rome in 1839. He is well known by his opera Faust, and his oratorios The Redemption and Mors et Vita. He died at Saint-Cloud, October 17, 1893. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Gradual, Prague, 1567




Gramann, Johann (Poliander), 1487-1541

Johannes Graumann, also known by the name Poliander, the Greek translation of his name, was born July 5, 1487, in Neustadt, Bavaria. He studied in Leipzig, where he afterwards was appointed teacher at the Thomas-Schule. During the disputation of 1519 between Eck, Luther, and Carlstadt, Graumann served as a loyal Catholic on Eck’s side. But this disputation brought on him a doubt as to the correctness of his position, and this for two reasons: he was struck by the fact that Luther always supported his opinions with references to the Holy Scriptures; in the second place, he was moved by Luther’s strong appeal to the dictates of conscience rather than by Eck’s cleverness in the art of disputation. As Graumann often had occasion to preach, his sermons from now on became more and more Lutheran. In 1520 he was appointed rector of the Thomas-Schule. But he nourished a strong desire to leave Leipzig and go to Wittenberg, all the more now because his activities in the interest of the Reformation had brought on strained relations with the Catholic duke, George of Saxony. In 1522, after having found one who could take his place as rector of the Thomas-Schule, he went to Luther and Melanchthon at Wittenberg.

The following year he was made a preacher in the Bavarian town of Würtzburg am Main. There he served for two years, until 1523, when the Peasants’ War broke out and spread into those parts. Graumann moved to Nürnberg. But Luther, the same year, induced him to go to Königsberg, where he assisted John Briesmann in furthering the cause of the Reformation in the province of Count Albrecht of Brandenburg. Graumann also reorganized the school system of Brandenburg. The count appointed him preacher in the Altstädt church of Königsberg. There he not only gathered a large number of hearers, but he showed that he was fearless in his proclamation of the Gospel truths, and braved even the risk of incurring the displeasure of the count. It came about in this manner. Anabaptist doctrines had gained favor with many congregations and preachers, and, although their leader was an intimate friend of the elector, still Graumann sharply attacked him. The count decided that the two parties should meet for a public disputation, and the victorious doctrine should be given the right of way in the land. At the disputation Graumann was victorious. No matter how cleverly the Anabaptists advanced their proofs, Graumann, with clear and direct Scripture statements, refuted all their arguments and silenced all his opponents. In that manner the province was saved from the Anabaptist domination. Graumann died in the year 1541 from a stroke of paralysis at the age of 54. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GRAMANN (Graumann), Johann (Poliander) (1487-1541), was born in Neustadt, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on July 5, 1487. After he finished his studies at Leipzig (M. A. 1516; B. D. 1520), he was appointed rector of the St. Thomas’s School in Leipzig. In 1519 he attended the disputation between Eck, Luther, and Carlstadt as the amanuensis of Eck. After the disputation Gramann espoused the cause of the Reformation, because he noticed that Luther supported his opinions with references to Scripture, and he was moved by Luther’s strong appeal to the dictates of conscience, rather than by Eck’s cleverness in the art of disputation. He decided to leave Leipzig because of strained relations with the Catholic duke, George of Saxony, and went to Wittenberg to join Luther and Melanchthon. In 1523 he was appointed preacher at Würzburg. At the outbreak of the Peasants War in 1525, he went to Nürnberg and was appointed preacher to the nunnery of St. Clara in that city. Upon Luther’s recommendation he was called by the Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg to come to the Margrave’s province and to assist the cause of the Reformation there. In this work he assisted John Briesmann. Gramann became pastor of the Altstadt church in Königsberg in October, 1525. Later he incurred the displeasure of the count by opposing the Anabaptists, who had gained favor with the count and the people of the congregation. In a public disputation ordered by the count, Gramann successfully refuted the Anabaptists on the basis of Scripture and saved the province from this false doctrine. He also opposed the Schwenckfeldians and was active in organizing the evangelical schools of the province. Gramann died at Königsberg on April 29, 1541. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Grant, Sir Robert, 1779-1838

Sir Robert Grant was the second son of Charles Grant, famous philanthropist, statesman, and member of parliament from Inverness. He was born in 1785. He was educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, together with his elder brother Charles (later Lord Glenelg). Robert studied law and became a lawyer, 1807; member of parliament, 1826; privy councillor, 1831; governor of Bombay, 1834. He died in Dapoorie, West Indies, 1838. In 1839 his brother, Lord Glenelg, collected and published 12 of his hymns under the title: Sacred Poems, by the Right Hon. Sir Robert Grant, London, 1839. New editions were made in 1849 and 1868. Grant ranks high as a writer of hymns. His hymns are characterized by grace and beauty of style, and intense religious feeling. The two hymns which have been included in The Lutheran Hymnary are sung wherever the English language is used. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GRANT, Sir Robert (1779-1838), the second son of Charles Grant, M. P., and a director of the East India Company, was born in Bengal, India. When Robert was six years old, the family moved to London. He was educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, and called to the English Bar in 1807. In 1826, as his father had been Grant became M. P. for Inverness. While in Parliament, he introduced a bill to remove restrictions imposed upon the Jews. The historian Macaulay made his maiden speech in Parliament in support of this measure. In 1831 Grant became a privy councilor, in 1832 Judge Advocate General, and two years later was appointed Governor of Bombay, being knighted at the same time. Grant died at Dalpoorie Western India, where a medical college bearing his name has been erected as a memorial to him. Grant wrote twelve hymns; they were published posthumously by his brother, Lord Glenelg, in 1839 under the title Sacred Poems. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Greek, c. 200



Green, Fred Pratt, b. 1903


tr. 349


Gregory I, 540-604, attr.




Greiter, Matthias, Strassburger Kirchenamt, 1525



Grenoble Antiphoner, 1753



Grieg, Edvard Hagerup, 1843-1907

GRIEG, Edvard Hagerup (1843-1907), Norwegian composer and pianist, was born at Bergen June 15, 1843. His great-grandfather, Alexander Greig, emigrated from Scotland to Norway after the battle of Culloden (1745) and changed his name to Grieg. His father was British consul at Bergen. He married Gesine Judith Hagerup a descendant of Kjeld Stub, from whom Edvard inherited his musical talent. At the advice of Ole Bull, Edvard was sent to the Leipzig Conservatory at the age of fifteen. He studied under Plaidy, Wenzel, Moscheles, E. F. Richter, Hauptmann, and Reinecke. From Leipzig he went to Copenhagen, where he studied under Niels Gade and Emil Hartmann. From 1864 on he was active at Copenhagen and Christiania, conducting, composing, and teaching. He married his cousin Nin Hagerup in 1867. An excellent vocalist, she helped gain favor for his songs. When Franz Liszt became interested in Grieg, the Norwegian government gave him financial aid to go to Rome, and Liszt’s advice helped him to persevere in his efforts to use his genius in the interest of Northern music. Grieg did for Norway what Chopin did for Poland, Liszt for Hungary, and Dvorak for Bohemia: He created a new national art. He died suddenly Sept. 4, 1907, while boarding a steamer which was to take him to London to fill some concert engagements. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


setting: 553


Grigg, Joseph, c. 1722-68

It is not definitely known at what time this hymn was written. Grigg is said to have begun the writing of hymns at the age of 10 years. The hymn was published by the author in 1765 as one of his Four Hymns on Divine Subjects wherein the Patience and Love of our Divine Savior is displayed. It has later been revised by many, among whom may be mentioned Benjamin Francis in Rippon’s Baptist Selection, 1787. The melody (Federal Street) was composed by Henry Kemble Oliver (b. 1800 in Mass.; d. Boston, 1885).

Joseph Grigg, born 1728, was a son of poor parents and was educated for mechanical pursuits.—In 1743 he gave up this work and became assistant pastor to Rev. Thomas Bures of Silver Street Presbyterian Church in London. When Pastor Bures died, in 1747, Grigg retired from the ministry, married a wealthy lady, and went to reside in St. Albans. He died October 29, 1768, in Walthamstow, Essex. Grigg wrote a number of religious treatises, and several of his hymns are found among these. His hymns were published in 1861, under the title, Hymns on Divine Subjects, edited by D. Sedgwick, London. The present hymn, together with “Behold a stranger at the door,” have gained great favor and are extensively used. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GRIGG, Joseph (c.1722-1768), was born of poor parents and trained for the trade of a mechanic. He became assistant to the Rev. Thomas Bures of the Presbyterian Church, Silver Street, London, in 1743, after whose death, in 1747, he retired, marrying a lady of property. He died at Walthemstow, Essex, October 29, 1768. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Grindal, Gracia, b. 1943

tr. 479


Grodzki, Michal, c. 1550

GRODZKI, Michal (c. 1550) . There seem to be no data available on this author. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Gruber, Franz, 1787-1863

Franz Gruber, born November 25, 1787, in Hochburg, near Linz, and died in 1863, as organist of Hallein, near Salzburg. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GRUBER, Franz (1787-1863), was born in Hochburg, Upper Austria, on November 25, 1787. He served most of his life as Roman Catholic schoolmaster and parish organist in the town of Arnsdorf, near Oberndorf (see Joseph Mohr), and died at Hallein, only twelve miles from where he was born, on June 7, 1863. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Grundtvig, Nicolai Frederik Severin, 1783-1872

Nikolai Fredrik Severin Grundtvig was born September 8, 1783, in Udby, near Vordingborg, Denmark. His father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were ministers. Through his mother he descended from the famous Hvid family. His father was one of the very few ministers of Denmark who did not join the rationalist ranks, but remained true to the Gospel of Christ. In the childhood home the ruling spirit was that of the good old orthodox piety, and Luther was his hero; but in the church and school the doctrine of reason reigned supreme, so that as Grundtvig grew up he was bound to be influenced by it At the age of nine he was sent to a minister in Jylland to be educated. Here he read Saxo’s works, Snorre, Holberg’s historical writings, and all sorts of old folklore. Suhm’s book on Odin and Heathen Mythology especially awakened his interest for Northern mythology. He read aloud to the workmen in the shoe shop in the house where he resided. In that way he became familiar with the old Danish popular stories and fables. He began even then to write poetry. After two years’ study he passed the examen artium, 1800—the same year as Oehlenschlager—and three years later he took the examination for the office of the ministry. During the last year of his study he grew wholly indifferent toward religion. He says himself that he ended his academic career without spirit and without faith. But he had also received impressions in another direction. His cousin, Henrik Steffens, lectured on natural philosophy and poetry, among other subjects, also Goethe, “the only class he truly appreciated.” Steffens showed him the importance of history and gave him a poetic insight into the beauty and glory of true Christianity as contrasted with a Christianity based on reason. The idea of a connection between the various periods of history and of Christ as the central fact of all history made a profound impression upon Grundtvig. He gained greater clearness on this subject during his three-year service as family tutor in Langeland. In his spare time he read Shakespeare, Goethe, Schiller, Fichte, Schelling, and others, and studied Old Norse language and literature. In 1807 he wrote his first theological treatise on Religion and Liturgics, in connection with certain proposed changes in the liturgy of the Danish church. His intense study of this romantic literature and also an unfortunate experience in love affairs stirred the chords of his heart. He also passed through another crisis during this time which brought him to a deeper appreciation of Christianity and history. Oehlenschlager’s Nordiske Digte and Vaulunders Saga aroused Grundtvig’s interest in the ancient glory of the people of the Northern countries, and from now on he wrote several articles on the Edda Sagas and on Old Norse Mythology. In 1808 he returned to Copenhagen where he sought a professorship at the university. In the meantime he was appointed teacher of history in one of the Copenhagen schools. During the same year he published Northern Mythology or the Religion of the Eddas. In 1810 Scenes from the Northland; Life among the Giants. The first represents the romantic conception of mythology as the poetic-symbolic garb of thought given to the popular view of life. It marks a turning-point in mythological research. In the second work Grundtvig desired to stir up his indifferent generation to a realization of the glory of the past. Both were the products of his enthusiasm for the ancient glory of the Northern countries, a characteristic which never left him. As he busied himself with history and mythology his attention was more and more drawn towards true historic Christianity, and his relation of opposition to rationalism became more pronounced. Then, in 1810, he delivered his famous probational sermon in Copenhagen. His text was Why Has the Word of God Departed from His House? In this sermon he violently attacked the spirit of the times which had put the thoughts and commandments of men in place of the saving Gospel of Jesus Christ. This sermon was printed and caused a great stir. The clergymen of the capital sent in a protest against it, and Grundtvig was called to appear before the consistory of the university. The government board of justice (kancelli) decided that he should receive a reprimand, because, by having his sermon printed, he had betrayed a vain desire for publicity. But all this only served to force Grundtvig deeper and deeper into the study of Christianity. He was now more determined than ever to keep aloof from the popular philosophy of Schelling. In a little volume of poems, New Year’s Eve, 1811, he tells the story of his experiences, how he had learned to distinguish poetry and philosophical research from the truly religious, and that he now had arrived upon true Christian ground and had come to a personal faith in Christ. The spiritual struggle which he had gone through had so far undermined his health that he now sought relief by going home to his father’s parsonage. In the dedication of New Year’s Eve he announces his future program as follows:

Hvad er Kløgt, og hvad er alt paa Jord mod det rene, klare Guddomsord! Derfor skal min Sang nu ene tone til hans Pris som steg fra Himlen ned, som os vilde med vor Gud forsone, skjænke os en salig Evighed.

He who had “thought it possible to approach God with giant strides, and not through humble penitence”; he who had “dreamt of accomplishing heroic deeds for the glory of his faith”; he who “had, indeed, been deeply stirred with enthusiasm for Christianity as the greatest spiritual power in the world,” but “who had not yet beheld the cross”; he “who had spurned the thought of becoming a village pastor” —now desired nothing more than to become his father’s assistant. This was granted to him in 1811. In the tranquillity of his childhood home he regained his peace of heart. In 1812 he published A Short Summary of World’s Events, which drew much attention and considerable discussion. After his father’s death he returned to Copenhagen, where he led a lonely life among his books and a few friends, among whom may be mentioned the poet Ingemann. At times he was given an opportunity to preach. His sermons always dealt with the contrast between faith and unbelief, between the world and the Church. Hence, he was called a fanatic and mysticist, and one by one the churches were denied him. Finally, only the Fredriksberg church remained open to him. Here, in 1816, he delivered a series of Biblical Sermons. At the same time he carried on his literary efforts on a large scale. Among other publications should be mentioned, Bible Chronicle, Roskilde Poems, and Roskilde Saga, Little Songs, besides editing the periodical Dannevirke from 1816 to 1819. In this latter publication he continued his attacks upon the rationalistic philosophers of his time and pointed to history as the great and all-embracing proof of the truth of Christianity. This thought he developed more fully in Survey of World Events, especially during the Lutheran era, published 1817. In 1818-1822 his translations of Saxo and Snorre appeared. He also found time to study English language and literature, and in 1820 he published a free translation of Beowulf. Without application Grundtvig was called to the pastorate of Prestø, south Sjælland, 1821, but it was his firm desire to labor in the capital city, “that city, from which unbelief was spreading over the land and from which all good movements ought to go out.” At his own urgent request he was appointed assistant in Our Savior’s Church, Kristianshavn, 1822. It appeared during that period that the dawn of a new day had come in Europe. The war of independence in Greece heralded a new era. And Grundtvig, who “felt the powers of a new morn,” wrote New Year’s Morn, 1824, which has been mentioned as “a mighty poem.” In the prelude he sent the following greeting to the peoples of the North:

Guds Fred, hvor I bygge Paa Mark og paa Fjeld, I Bøgenes Skygge, Ved Elvenes Væld! Guds Fred over Skoven, Hvor Stammene staa. Guds Fred over Voven, Hvor Snækkene gaa, Som ankre, som flage Paa festlige Dage, Som end tone Fædrenes Flag.

Guds Fred, som den fandtes I Fædrenes Barm, Guds Fred, som den vandtes Ved Frelserens arm, Guds Fred, som den troner, Hvor Kjærlighet bor, Guds Fred, som den toner I Hytter av Jord, Som selv jeg den nyder, Tilønsker og byder Jeg Brødre og Frænder i Nord.

During the summer of 1825 Professor H. N. Clausen published his The Constitution, Doctrine, and Ritual of the Catholic and the Protestant Churches. A few weeks later Grundtvig issued Kirkens Gjenmæle (The Reply of the Church), in which he charged Clausen with false doctrine and demanded that he either retract or resign from his position as teacher. This article caused an extraordinary sensation. It appeared in three editions within a short time. Clausen, however, did not enter into arguments with Grundtvig, but took occasion, from the virulent expressions in the article, to sue him for libel. Grundtvig was found guilty and had to pay a fine and the costs of the trial. Even before the judgment was announced he resigned from his office, in 1826. In memory of his pastoral work he published Christian Sermons and Sunday Book.

But during this time Grundtvig’s “views on the Church” took definite form. He took a firm stand on the baptismal confession of faith. For over a thousand years the Christian congregation had required that all who desired to become members should make this good confession, i. e., the renunciation and the confession. Hence, he reasoned this must be the sum and substance of all Christianity, and the requirements for admission to the Christian congregation must have been laid down by Christ Himself. Thus, the confession is a word from the Lord’s own mouth; Baptism as the life-giving sacrament, and the Lord’s Supper as the life-sustaining, furnish the fountain of all Christian life.,, In close connection lies his conception of the living (oral) word and the dead (written). Spiritual life can be transmitted only by means of the “living” word; Jesus Christ, the Word who became flesh, still lives in His congregation, in His institutions, and in the words of the sacraments. The Holy Scriptures are an indispensable book of information, but they are only a description of Christ and His work, they do not bring us Christ Himself. Together with Rudelbach he had, in 1825, founded the Theological Monthly, and through a series of essays in this magazine he now sought to develop and establish his views on the Church. During the years 1829-1831, being furnished an allowance from the Danish king, he made several trips to England for the purpose of studying the old manuscripts of Anglo-Saxon literature, which, up to that time, had not been published. In fact, Grundtvig’s work gave impetus to the work of their publication. But these visits to England had great influence upon Grundtvig in another line. He was deeply impressed by the spirit of liberty enjoyed by the people of England. It taught him “with respect of freedom, as well as all other human agencies, to emphasize realities. with deep disdain for the empty theories of quill-drivers and bookworms.”

His desire now was to work for the development of a free and vigorous civil life. In 1832 he published Northern Mythology or Emblematic Language, one of the most brilliant books in Danish literature. He considers the myths as emblematic, figurative representations of the moral views of the people, and that “they are prophetic of the future of the nation.” In a series of essays he draws a comparison between the moral views of the Greeks and those of the peoples of the Northern lands. In 1829 he published A Handbook of History According to the Best Sources.

His historical lectures in Borch’s College, 1838, made a great sensation and were heard by a large circle of influential men. But Grundtvig was in close touch with his age also in another connection. He was, indeed, without regular employment as pastor until 1839, but not without pastoral work. In March, 1832, he was permitted to use Fredrik’s German Church for evening services, but he must not administer Baptism or the Lord’s Supper, or confirmation. For seven years he gathered a free congregation here, and it served to keep alive the issues of interest for him. Even at an earlier period he had written several hymns and devotional songs, but it was really from this time that he became known as one of the most unique and forceful hymn writers of the Church. In 1837 he published Songs for the Danish Church. He continued writing hymns during the following years to such an extent that, when they were all published after his death, they comprised five volumes of Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1873-81. An abridged edition of one volume appeared in 1883. The four-volume edition contains translations and versions of the best hymns of all Christian churches outside of Denmark, revisions of old Danish hymns, and original hymns. In The Seven Stars of Christendom, 1860, he gave a unique survey of church history. The striking characteristic of this work is the fact that “it contains Christian life throughout as a spiritual folk-life, which has for ages been in lively intercommunication with the development and language of the principal nations of the earth.”

Grundtvig also directed his attention to the school system, endeavoring to solve the problem of proper education for the rising generation. He was of the opinion that the current methods were too one-sided and merely intellectual and that the ethical side of the child’s development should be emphasized more, so that, through a more harmonious training of faculties, a better type of personality might be developed. He vigorously opposed the preponderance of the study of Latin, as well as the other dead languages in the schools, demanding that instruction be made more free and lively, and that the old “system of examinations” be abolished. He insisted on a departure from the old style of “bookworm spirit,” and would rather expend the time and energy of the pupil equipping him for the problems of real life; “a consistent, joyful, active life on earth… with the eye, as it was created, turned toward heaven, yet open to all the beauty and glory here upon earth.” Such a life, he claimed, should be the final goal of all educational activities. Grundtvig’s ideas in this line had a very considerable influence upon the development of the Danish as well as the Norwegian educational system. Their special feature resulted in the development of the popular high schools (folkehøiskoler). Grundtvig’s lyric poems furnish the key to a proper understanding of his genius. He subordinated form and style to thought. Hence, many of his poems are not masterpieces of art; gold and dross lie side by side in most of them. His chief aim was to express his poetic visions and feelings in their first freshness and originality; “Altid jeg sang hvad jeg hadde i Sinde,” (Always I sang what came to my mind). The fact that the expression thus produced became at times unclear and indistinct, did not worry him. “Transparency was not always the decisive mark of the truth,” was his reply. In many respects he was a true romanticist. He says, “It is, indeed, a strange thing to be a bard, we perceive the voices from above, in mysterious accents; what we say, we know not.” Love plays a minor part in his poetry, nature is subordinated, but otherwise, almost everything which can stir the feelings in the human breast has found expression in his productions. For this latter reason many of his songs are still popular among the people of his country. In 1897, seven volumes of his secular poems were published.

In 1839 Grundtvig became pastor in Vartou, and gathered a large congregation which through Christian living and congregational singing had a decisive influence upon the development of the Church. In 1861, when he celebrated his golden jubilee as pastor, he was given the title of bishop. His friends presented him with a seven-armed candle-stick, and numerous other gifts as tokens of love and esteem. He died September 2, 1872, at the age of 89. He passed away quietly and peacefully, “like an autumn sunset.” He delivered his last sermon on the day before his death.

The most important of Grundtvig’s productions are his hymns. As a writer of hymns he ranks above Kingo in poetic flights and in intensity of feeling. He is especially a “Pentecost songster,” and his church hymns are unexcelled. While Grundtvig for some time spent a rather lonely existence, he gained, after a while, the respect and esteem of the greater number both in Denmark and in Norway. After the Haugean revival, which especially affected the middle lower classes in Norway, there followed another awakening along the lines of Grundtvig’s ideas, but this affected chiefly the upper classes, especially the clergymen and the teachers. Professors of the University of Norway, Hersleb and Stenersen, were Grundtvig’s staunch friends, and the famous minister, W. A. Wexels, was in great measure influenced by him. In the main the influence of Grundtvig was strongly felt in the Church of Norway, until Johnson and Caspari opposed it with their strict Lutheran theology. But his influence was also felt in educational circles. Men like Herman Anker, Arvesen, Chr. Bruun, and Ullmann prepared the way for the popular high schools. Chr. Bruun, in his Folkelige Grundtanker, gives eloquent tribute to Grundtvig’s pedagogical principles: “Many reforms undertaken in the educational systems of Norway, during the latter half of the last century, especially the reduction in Latin requirements, and the coordination of the so-called ‘landsmaal’ and the ‘riksmaal’ (the popular language and the official language of the land) are in great measure due to the influence of Grundtvig’s ideas on popular education.” And finally, the spirit of Grundtvig’s poetic and religious genius found its way to the hearts of the people through the new expression which was given to it by Bjornson, who wrote many of his spiritual songs while under the influence of Grundtvig’s style, especially the song, “Til Kamp da, Venner, for Kristendomslivet” (To arms, then, Friends, for Christian life).

Bishop Bang says: “Grundtvig is the most important hymn writer of the 19th century; in this respect he ranks with Brorson of the 18th and Kingo of the 17th century.” Bishop Skaar: “His influence has especially been great in the line of awakening and strengthening Christian life, and that not only among those who have favored his views on these issues, but even among his opponents. His untiring opposition to rationalism; his work in speech and in song to open heart and vision to the objective truths of Christianity, and, especially, to the significance of the sacraments; all in all, his work has been rich in blessing both for the Danish and the Norwegian church.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

GRUNDTVIG, Nicolai Fredrik Severin (1783-1872), was born in Udby, near Vordlingborg, Denmark, on September 8, 1783. He was descended from a long line of ministers. At the age of nine he was sent to a minister in Jylland to be educated, where, after two years study he passed the examen artium, and in 1803 he took the examination for the office of the ministry. During the last year of his study Grundtvig had grown entirely indifferent to religion. He tutored for three years in Langeland and in 1807 wrote his first theological treatise on Religion and Liturgics. From 1808 until 1811 he was a teacher of history in one of the Copenhagen schools and in the latter year became assistant to his father in his home town. In 1821 King Frederick VI appointed him pastor at Presto. In 1822 he became assistant pastor of Our Savior’s Church, Kristianshavn. In 1826, as a result of a libel suit for charging Prof. H. N. Clausen with false doctrine, Grundtvig was forced to resign from his office. During the years 1829-1831 he made several trips to England to study old Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Although he lectured in Borch’s College in 1838, he was without regular employment as a pastor until 1839. He had previously written several hymns and devotional songs, but the years 1837-1860 were his most prolific for song-writing. In 1839 Grundtvig became pastor in Vartau, and when he celebrated his golden jubilee as pastor, he was given the title of bishop. He died at the age of 89, having delivered his last sermon on the day before his death. Grundtvig is called the most important Scandinavian hymn-writer of the 19th century, ranking with Brorson and Kingo. He published Songs for the Danish Church in 1837. After his death his poems and hymns were published in five volumes, entitled Hymns and Spiritual Songs. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


120, 143, 211, 462, 583, 595


Gryphius, Andreas, 1616-64

GRYPHIUS, Andreas (1616-1664), was born on October 2, 1616, at Gross-Glogau, in Silesia. He was educated at the school in Fraustadt, Silesia, 163134, and at the Gymnasium at Danzig, 1634-36. He was tutor in the house of Baron Georg von Schönborn for a while, but then was forced by the Counter-Reformation to find refuge in Holland. There he entered Leyden University, 1638, and was university lecturer until 1643. He toured France, Italy, Holland, and South Germany, finally settling in Fraustadt in 1647. He was appointed syndicus of the principality of Glogau in 1650. He died of a paralytic stroke, while attending a meeting of the diet at Glogau, on July 16, 1664. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


528, 533


Guthrie, John, 1814-78

John Guthrie, born in Milnathort, Scotland, May 30, 1814, was educated at the University of Edinburgh, receiving the M. A. degree in 1835. He was ordained to the ministry in 1840, and began his activity as a minister in the United Secession Church of Kendal. It very soon developed that he shared the anti-Calvinistic views of Dr. James Morrison, and he became, together with Dr. Morrison, one of the founders of the Evangelical Union. He, however, continued to labor in Kendal until 1848, when he took up work in one of the churches of his denomination in Glasgow. In 1851 he moved to Greenock; in 1862 to London; four years later, again to Glasgow. Aside from his work as a minister, he served as professor from 1846 to 1861. In 1878 he planned a trip to New Zealand, but came only as far as London, where he died September 18 of the same year. Guthrie received the degree of doctor of theology in 1875. In 1869 he published Sacred Lyrics, containing 28 original hymns, 17 translations from the German, and 37 hymn paraphrases. Several of his hymns and translations are valued highly. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]




Hálfdánarson, Helgi, 1826-94

Helgi (or Helge) Hálfdánarson, Icelandic theologian and hymnwriter, was born 19 August 1826 on a farm, Rústadir in Øgjorden, where his father, Hálfdán Einarsson, later ordained a pastor and installed as provost, who at that time makde his living as a farmer. His mother’s name was Alfheidur, a daughter of the famous editor of the edifying pamphlets, Pastor Jón Jónsson of Mödrufell. In 1848 he enrolled in college in Reykjavik and later studied theology at the University of Copenhagen, becoming candidate of theology in 1854. He was ordained the next year. The first three years he was pastor at Kjalarnesping, from 1858 at Gardar on Alftanes near Reykjavik. In 1867 he received appointed to the Seminary in Reykjavik, and 1885 was Forstander [Principal], or Lector theologiae, at the school, an office he held until his death 2 Jan. 1894.

Sincere devotion and firm confession of faith in the heritage of the church are the heart of Helge Háldánarson’s activity, which is so multi-faceted and rich in blessings. At the seminary he was mainly a teacher of church history, ethics, and practical theology. The fruits of this teaching activity are in “Saga fornkirkjunnar” (History of the ancient church), “Kristileg sidfrædi (Ethics) eftir luterskri kenningu” and “Sutt ágrip af prjedikunarfrædi” (a short outline of homiletics). These textbooks were, for the most part, published after his death, by his son, first docent at the Seminary, Jón Helgason, and they are still used at the school [in 1900]. All Helge Halfdanarson’s lectures and textbooks excel in their rich content and clear presentation. At his 25th anniversary of teaching Helge Hálfdánarsson said that when he entered the service of the Church as a young man, there were three things that were especially needed, and with which he wished to busy himself: a better textbook for confirmation instruction, a new hymnbook, and revision of the Bible translation. Two of these wishes he had fulfilled, the third and last remained, but it would be taken up by younger power, and this hope even now is coming to fulfillment under Bishop Hallgrimur Sveinsson’s direction.

Balle’s textbook was translated into Icelandic in 1796 and it completely replaced “Ponti”, that is Pontoppidan’s textbook. When the “old Balle” was found to be less up-to-date, a translation of Balslev’s Catechism came out in 1866, but it was not correct. So in 1877 Háldánarson’s completely new and original textbook Kristilegur barnalærdómur eftir luterskri kenningu found a very quick introduction; the only complaint against this textbook, apart from content and form, is that perhaps it has too much dogmatic material for the instruction of children. It is divided into two main parts: doctrine of faith and doctrine of the seed.

Iceland had a hymnbook from the beginning of the 19th century, which was not a little influenced by the rationalistic spirit of that time. The book was not well received and was found even less satisfactory in the sense that it was wakened from the purity and beauty of the language in the editions of the sagas, and even greater formal demand was placed on the poets. A Supplement at the middle of the century helped only a little, and Bishop Pjetur Pjetursson therefore wanted to meet the requests for a new hymnbook. For this work he wanted to get help from Helge Hálfdánarsson, who at that time had just begun his teaching work at the seminary and was already known as a poetically gifted person, with special interest and knowledge in hymn-writing. But they could not agree on how to proceed. Hálfdánarsson wanted to be much more radical for the work than the bishop; the revised hymnbook of 1871 contained certain hymns by Helge Hálfdánarsson, but he did not work on it. This revision was considered a less-than-successful project that was half-done, and in 1878 a committee of 7 men was established to make a thorough revision of the hymnbook. In this commission Helge Hálfdánarsson only proposed that they have completely free hands, and he was the self-appointed chairman, who had most of the work. The new hymnbook came out in 1886 containing 650 hymns, of which only a fifth were taken over from older hymnbooks in unaltered form. Over 200 hymns come from the pen of Helge Hálfdánarsson, of which a third are original. As a hymn translator Hálfdánarsson stressed using the hymns which were common in the Lutheran Church. So he made a faithful translation of all of Luther’s hymns, which had not yet been published in their entirety. Two smaller selections of translations and original hymns by Helge Hálfdánarsson came out in 1873 and 1874.

Helge Hálfdánarsson’s hymns are distinguished by their genuine churchly tone, sincerity, and strength of faith and strong observance of all the metrical demands. A collection of sermons or postil by Helge Hálfdánarsson was printed in November 1900. Helge Hálfdánarsson had a bit of time for everything, in the years before the millennium-celebration, when the constitutional struggle reached its highest point. Although he asserted himself little in politics, his calm arbitration found not a little significance even in the matter of the constitution. A legate at the seminary “Minningarsjodur lektors Helge Hálfdánarsson”, established by the country’s pastors, makes mention of Iceland’s greatest teacher in the 19th century. [Kirkeleksikon for Norden] A man of a sincere Christian character, a Lutheran of the old school, his influence lives on not least in the admirable translations of foreign hymns which he bequeathed as a legacy to the Icelandic Church. [C. Venn Pilcher, The Passion-Hymns of Iceland]

346            Death is dead, the true Life liveth


Hammerschmidt, Andreas, c. 1611-75

Andreas Hammerschmidt, born at Brüx in Bohemia, received his early musical training from the cantor Stephan Otto at Schandau in Saxony. He became organist of St. Peter’s in Freiberg in 1635, succeeding Christoph Schreiber, and in 1639 of St. John’s Church in Zittau, again as successor to Schreiber, which position he held until his death on October 29, 1675. Hammerschmidt was one of the most distinguished composers of church music in the 17th century; he contributed prolifically to the choir and congregational music of his day. His Musicalische Andachten, 1638, and Kirchen- und Tafelmusik, 1662, are representative. In 1659 his Fest-, Buss- und Danklieder was published at Zittau and Dresden. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

163            FREUET EUCH, IHR CHRISTEN ALLE (O rejoice, ye Christians loudly)

362            MEINEN JESUM LASS ICH NICHT (Jesus I will never leave)


Hammond, William, 1719-83

William Hammond was born in Battle, Sussex, England, on January 6, 1719, and educated at St. John’s College, Cambridge. In 1743 he joined the Calvinistic Methodists and two years later the Moravian Brethren. He died in London on August 19, 1783. Besides writing original hymns, many of which were once widely used, he was among the first to publish translations of the old Latin hymns. His Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs appeared in 1745. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

17  Awake and sing the song


Händel, Georg Friedrich, 1685-1759

Georg Friedrich Händel was born at Halle on February 23, 1685. From about the age of ten he devoted himself to music, although his father intended him for the legal profession. From F. W. Zachau, the organist of the cathedral at Halle, he learned the rudiments of composing and quickly mastered the organ, clavier, violin, and oboe. In 1702 he entered the new University of Halle and was appointed organist of the cathedral. In the following year he went to Hamburg, where he played the violin in the opera orchestra, wrote four operas, producing his first one Almira, in 1705. During the years 1707-1710 Händel traveled in Italy, studying the Italian opera. After a brief tenure of office as chapelmaster to the Elector of Hanover, later King George I of Great Britain and Ireland, he went to England, where he became a naturalized British subject in 1726. He was for a time chapelmaster to the Duke of Chandes, at Cannons, near London, where he composed the Chandos Te Deums and Anthems, and in 1720 his first oratorio, Esther. After 1737 Händel seems to have concentrated almost exclusively on the writing of oratorios. He composed his Messiah in 24 days, and after its enthusiastic acceptance in 1741 basked in the light of popular favor until blindness overtook him in 1752. He died on April 14, 1759, and was buried in the Poets’ corner of Westminster Abbey. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

73  JUDAS MACCABAEUS (Thine is the glory)

138            ANTIOCH (Joy to the world)

232            SIROË


Harding, James Proctor, 1850, 1859?-1911

John P. (James?) Harding. There seems to be uncertainty regarding the first name of this composer and the exact year of his birth. McCutchan calls him James and gives the year of his birth as 1859, and Covert and Laufer call him John and give his birth as 1850. Harding was organist and choirmaster at St. Andrew’s Church, London, for thirty-five years. Many of his compositions were inspired by children’s festivals in connection with the Gifford Hall Mission. Harding composed anthems, church services, part songs, and carols. For many years he was engaged in work in the Civil Service. He died in 1911. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]

169            MORNING STAR (Brightest and Best)


Harmonia cantionum, Leipzig, 1597

261:2-3      Who trusts in God, a strong abode


Harmonischer Lieder-Schatz, Frankfurt, 1738

409            ICH WILL DICH LIEBEN (Thee will I love, my Strength, my Tower)


Hartmann, Johan Peter Emilius, 1805-1900

The melody FRED TIL BOD was composed by the Danish organist and composer, Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann, of Copenhagen. It was first published as the setting for Grundtvig’s hymn, “Fred til Bod for bittert Savn” (Peace to soothe our bitter woes). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

14  FRED TIL BOD (HARTMANN) (Father, who the light this day))

595            FRED TIL BOD (HARTMANN) (Peace to soothe)


Hassler, Hans Leo, 1564-1612

HASSLER, Hans Leo (1564-1612), was born October 25, or 26, 1564, at Nürnberg, Bavaria, the son of Isaac Hassler, an eminent organist, the town musician, and his first teacher. Hassler was the first notable German composer to go to Italy to study, where in Venice he was a fellow-pupil of Giovanni Gabrieli under the latter’s uncle, Andrea Gabrieli, organist of St. Mark’s. Returning to Germany, Hassler was successively organist to Count Ottavianus Fugger, the great merchant prince and art patron of Augsburg, at the Frauenkirche in Nürnberg, and at the court of the Elector of Saxony. Hassler accompanied the Elector to the Diet at Frankfurt in 1612 and died there. Hans Leo Hassler was the most eminent organist of his day. He is classed with Gumpeltzhaimer, Erbach, and Melchior Franck as one of the founders of German music. Hassler’s style was strongly influenced by the Gabrielis. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


334, 335

setting: 344


Hastings, Thomas, 1784-1872

Thomas Hastings, son of Dr. Seth Hastings, was born October 15, 1784, at Washington, Litchfield county, Connecticut. Two years later the family moved to Clinton, Oneida county, N. Y. The boy showed marked musical talent at an early age, and through intense private study in music he was able, at the age of 22, to begin giving lessons. Seeking a larger field, he moved to Troy in 1817, then to Albany, and in 1823 to Utica. Here he published a religious journal, where he gave expression to his ideas on church music. He began to draw attention to his work, and in 1832 he was called to New York City to take charge of several church choirs. There he labored for forty years, instructing church choirs, writing hymns, and composing melodies. He edited and published several collections of anthems and music books. Many of his hymns and melodies became very popular. His musical fame rests on the melody (Toplady) for “Rock of Ages.” Hastings died in New York, 1872.

The collections published by Hastings include the following: Spiritual Songs for Social Worship, Utica, 1831-32; in this work he was assisted by L. Mason; The Mother’s Hymn Book, 1834; The Christian Psalmist, N. Y., 1836; Devotional Hymns and Poems, 1850; besides Musica Sacra, Church Melodies, and other song collections. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HASTINGS Thomas (1784-1872), born in Litchfield, Connecticut, October 15, 1784. From 1821 to 1832 he conducted a religious journal in Utica. He was for nearly forty years resident in New York, where he was invited by a number of the churches to improve their psalmody, a subject to which he had given much attention from his earliest years. He was composer of many hymns and tunes which were published in the collections he issued: The Christian Psalmist, 1834; Church Melodies, 1858; Devotional Hymns and Poems, 1850. He collaborated with Lowell Mason in Spiritual Songs for Social Worship, 1832. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Hatton, John, c. 1710-93

The melody (Duke Street) is by John Hatton of Warington. Later he moved to St. Helens, where he died in 1793. The tune has been given the name of the street where the composer dwelt. It appeared in print in 1790. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HATTON, John (?-1793), was probably born in Warrington, England. We know only that just before his death he lived in St. Helens, in the township of Windle. Hatton is buried in the Presbyterian Chapel in St. Helens. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


193, 351


Hausmann, Julie von, 1825-1901



Havergal, Frances Ridley, 1836-79

Frances Ridley Havergal was born December 14, 1836, at Astley, Worcestershire. Five years later, her father, who was a minister, was transferred to the rectorship of St. Nicholas in Worcester. In 1850 Frances began her studies in Mrs. Teed’s school. Her stay there had a marked influence upon her spiritual development. The following year she writes: “I gave myself wholly to my Savior, and heaven and earth seemed to me more beautiful than before.” Within a remarkably short time she mastered French, German, Italian, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. After a short stay in Germany she was confirmed July 17, 1853, in Worcester Cathedral, where her father served as canon. Later on she visited Switzerland, Scotland, and Wales. During 1878 she stayed in Caswal Bay, Swansea, in South Wales. Here she suffered an attack of pneumonia and died June 3rd, 1879. Joyful and happy she waited for the hour of death and sang the hymn, “Jesus, I will trust Thee, trust Thee with my soul,” to the melody “Hermas.” This tune was one of her own compositions. “How splendid to be so near the portals of heaven,” she whispered as she again attempted to sing; but her voice faltered as she drew her last breath. She was buried at Astley. On her tomb was carved according to her own request: “The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin” (1 John 1:7).

Miss Havergal never laid claim to high rank as a poet; but she possessed a gifted Christian personality, and sang of God’s love and saving grace. Her hymns are filled with deeply religious sincerity, and every line breathes a fervent love of the Savior which nothing can move. The sole aim of her life was, by means of her hymns, to point the way to Him who bore the sin of the world. In one of her hymns she says: “Take my life, and let it be consecrated unto Thee.” All her work as well as her song she dedicated to Him, with whom full and free salvation is to be found, through His merit alone, for all sinners who receive Him in faith. Miss Havergal was an ardent supporter of missions. Many of her hymns were printed in pamphlets by P. & R. Parlane; others were printed on art cards and published by Caswell & Co. From time to time these were gathered and appeared in the following editions: Ministry of Song, 1869; Twelve Sacred Songs for Little Singers, 1870; Under the Surface, 1874; Loyal Responses, 1878; Life Mosaic, 1879; Life Chords, 1880; Life Echoes, 1883. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HAVERGAL, Frances Ridley (1836-1879), was the youngest child of William Henry Havergal, Vicar of Astley, Worcestershire (q. v.), and was born there on December 14, 1836. Her early life was spent in Worcestershire. At the age of seven she began to write verses which gained publication in several religious periodicals. But her frail health proved a great handicap to her in her work. Nevertheless, she studied and mastered French, German, Italian, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. For a time she studied at Düsseldorf. In early life Miss Havergal was much shadowed by fear and a morbid sense of the vanity of human life, but after the age of fourteen the shadows lifted. A volume of Memorials of her, which includes a partial Autobiography, disclosed a remarkable Christian character. Miss Havergal was a diligent Bible-reader and began her perusal at 7:00 A. M. in the summer and at 8:00 A. M. in the winter. When informed that she was going to die, Miss Havergal said, “If I am going, it is too good to be true.” She died while singing” Jesus, I will trust Thee,” and her epitaph at her request reads “The blood of Jesus Christ, His Son, cleanseth us from all sin.” Miss Havergal was the most gifted and popular female hymn-writer that England produced in the last half of the century. About 75 of her hymns are in use. She died June 3, 1879, at Caswall Bay, near Swansea. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


206, 444, 570


Havergal, William Henry, 1793-1870

William Henry Havergal, born at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, 1793, was educated at St. Edmund’s Hall, Oxford. In 1829 he became rector of Astley; in 1842, rector of St. Nicholas Worcester, and in 1860 rector of Shoreshill. He was also Hon. Canon of Worcester Cathedral from 1845. He died April 18, 1870. Rev. W. H. Havergal wrote many hymns, but he is best known as a musician. He wrote numerous hymn tunes and other compositions for the Church. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HAVERGAL, William Henry (1793-1870), born at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, January 18, 1793, baptized February 15; educated at St. Edmund’s Hall, Oxford, where he graduated in 1815, took holy orders February 24, 1816, M. A. June 25, 1819; and was rector of Astley, Worcestershire, 1829 to 1842; honorary canon, Worcester Cathedral, 1845; rector of St. Nicholas, Worcester, 1845 to 1860, when he resigned as a result of a carriage accident that had permanently injured his sight; rector of Shareshill from 1860 to 1868. He died at Leamington, April 19, 1870. He published a report of Ravenscroft’s Psalter, 1844, and three years later the Old Church Psalmody, which reached the fifth edition in 1864; A History of the Old Hundredth Psalm Tune, with Specimens, 1854, and, in 1859, A Hundred Psalm and Hymn Tunes of his own composition. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


441, 444, 512


Haweis, Thomas, 1732-1820

Dr. Thomas Haweis, an English preacher and musician (b. 1732; d. 1820). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HAWEIS, Thomas (1732-1820), was born at Cornwall, England, in 1732. He practiced medicine for a time and then entered Cambridge to study theology. He became assistant to M. Madam at Lock Hospital, London. Later he was Rector of All Saints, Aldwincle, Northampshire, and then chaplain to Lady Huntington at Bath. He earned the distinction of being the most musical of the chaplains. After Lady Huntington’s death he published Original Music Suited to the various Metres. He died at Bath February 11, 1820. Haweis was a copious writer, publishing several prose works, A History of the Church, A Translation of the New Testament, and A Commentary on the Holy Bible. His hymns, only a few of which have more than ordinary merit, appeared in Carmina Christo, or Hymns to the Savior. Many of them are also included in Lady Huntington’s Collection. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Haydn, Franz Joseph, 1732-1809

The melody, variously called “Austria,” “Haydn,” or “Vienna,” is by the famous Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). He was far advanced in years when he wrote it upon a request to furnish a melody for the Austrian national anthem, “Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser.” It was sung for the first time in all the theatres of Vienna on the occasion of the emperor’s birthday anniversary in 1797, and became immensely popular, not only throughout Austria, but also in other lands. It has been used with many national poems, and Haydn, who valued it very highly, later composed a number of variations upon it. He also made use of it in his Kaiser-Quartet. It is claimed that this tune was built upon the melody of an ancient Croatian folksong. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

64, 170


Hayn, Henriette Luise von, 1724-82

HAYN, Henriette Luise von (1724-1782), was born at Idstein, Nassau, on May 22, 1724. She was formally received into the Moravian Community at Herrnhag in 1742. She was teacher in the Girls School at Herrnhag, later in Grosshennersdorf and after 1751 at Herrnhut. From 1766 until her death Miss Hayn cared for the invalid sisters of the community. Over forty hymns or portions of hymns by her appeared in the Brüder Gesangbuch, 1778. She died August 27, 1782. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Heber, Reginald, 1783-1826

Reginald Heber was born April 21, 1783, in Malpas, Chescher, England, and was the son of Reginald Heber, the rector of Malpas, a minister of great learning and in possession of considerable wealth. The younger Reginald showed remarkable talents even at an early age. He wrote verses of merit as a child. His older brother, Richard, had a large library (some authorities say 150,000 volumes), and this gave Richard a splendid opportunity to satisfy his desire for knowledge. At the age of seventeen he entered Oxford, where he was educated at Brasenose College. Even during his first year at this institution he won the prize for his Latin poem, Carmen Seculare, and later the first prize for an English poem, Palestine, which has been called the best prize poem ever produced at Oxford, and has been given a permanent place in English literature. The outline was read to Walter Scott, and many of the striking expressions of the poem are due to his assistance. During his last year at the college he received another prize for his treatise, The Sense of Honor. Then he was given an appointment as Fellow of All Souls’ College. Having completed his university education, he was ordained to the ministry and became pastor of Hodnet church, where he applied himself extensively to his literary work. He was assistant editor of the Quarterly Review and delivered several lectures of the famous Bampton Lecture series. He wrote all his hymns during his 16 years at Hodnet. He prepared a splendid collection of hymns arranged according to the Sundays and festivals of the church year. This collection was not published, however, until after his death. In 1822 he became preacher at Lincoln’s Inn, London. Heber took great interest in the affairs of India and studied diligently the geography and the conditions of that country. He often expressed the desire of becoming bishop of Calcutta. In 1823 this desire was fulfilled. He received the degree of doctor of theology before leaving England. During the three years of service as missionary bishop, he showed extraordinary perseverance in the work, great self sacrifice, and a never waning enthusiasm for his calling. He ordained the first native minister, Christian David. He made extensive journeys of visitation through Bengal, Bombay, and Ceylon; later to Madras and Trichinopoli, where he confirmed 42 persons, April 3, 1826. At the close of this memorable day he went home to his lodging and, as was his custom, took a cold bath. He suffered a stroke of paralysis and died in the bathroom.

One hymnologist says regarding Heber’s hymns: “The lyric spirit of Scott and Byron entered into our hymns through the works of Heber.” A richer rhythm was given to the stanzas of the old meter, as, for instance, in the martial air, “The Son of God goes forth to war” (L. H. 491), and the free meter which characterized the contemporary poetry of the times, was also introduced into hymnwriting, as in the hymn, “Brightest and best of the sons of the morning” (224). His hymns possess an unusual grace of diction and elegance. We do not find the peculiar Scriptural richness and forceful expression which mark the older hymns of the Church, nor the dogmatic power of the Latin hymns; but as pure, graceful spiritual poetry, they will continue to be a source of joy and edification for Christians. Heber’s hymns form a part of the finest and most charming poetry in the English language. After Heber’s death the manuscript was found entitled, Hymns, Written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year. This was published in London in 1827. It contains 57 of Heber’s own hymns, 12 by Milman, and 29 by other authors. This hymnal is extensively used in England and America. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HEBER, Reginald (1783-1826), was born in Malpas, Cheshire, England, on April 21, 1783, the son of his father’s second wife, Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Cuthbert Allanson, D. D. His father was his first instructor. At seven Heber versified in English the Latin writer Phaedrus. At eight he was sent to Dr. Kent’s grammar school in Whitchurch and at thirteen to the Rev. Mr. Bristow’s select school at Neasdon. Here he formed a lasting friendship with John Thornton, the philanthropist of later years. In 1800 he entered Brasenose College, Oxford, the Alma Mater of his father. Heber’s brother Richard was a Fellow there at the time. During his first year he gained the Chancellor’s prize for the best Latin verse by his Carmen Seculare. In 1803, when he was seventeen, he wrote his Newdigate prize poem Palestine, a striking passage of which was suggested by Walter Scott. Palestine is almost the only prize poem that has won a permanent place in poetical literature. After he was awarded the prize, Heber’s parents found him on his knees in grateful prayer. At graduation he gained the University Bachelor’s prize for the best English prose essay with his Sense of Honor. He was also chosen a Fellow of All Souls College. In 1804 Heber’s father died. The following year was spent with his friend Thornton on a Continental tour. In 1806, when he returned, his brother Richard presented him with the living of Hodnet, where the family had moved. Heber was ordained early in 1807 as Vicar of Hodnet. All his hymns were written during his sixteen years at Hodnet. In April, 1809, he married Amelia, the youngest daughter of Dean William D. Shipley and granddaughter of the bishop of St. Asaph. In the same year he published Europe: Lines on the Present War. During 1811 and 1812 he contributed hymns to The Christian Observer. A new edition of his Poems with translations of Pindar was issued in 1812. In December, 1818, the death of Heber’s only child at the age of six months gave occasion to the hymn beginning “Thou art gone to the grave, but we will not deplore thee.” In 1819 he started a compilation of his hymns. Heber prevailed upon his gifted friend, the Rev. Henry Hart Milman, to contribute several admirable hymns. Heber presented a masterly but effectual plea to the Bishop of London for an ecclesiastical approval of his design. For this reason the result of Heber’s efforts was not published until after his death (1827) by his widow under the title, Hymns Written and Adapted to the Weekly Service of the Year. In 1822 Heber edited the Whole Works of Jeremy Taylor and prefixed A Life of the Author. In April of that year he obtained the Preachership of Lincoln’s Inn, London, which called him to the city about three months in the year and added about 600 pounds to his annual income. Also in this year Heber refused a call to India because of his wife and only child. In February of 1823 he received the degree of D. D. from the University of Oxford. Again he received the call to India, and this time he accepted. On June 1, 1823, he was consecrated by the Archbishop at Lambeth and sailed for India on June 18, arriving in October. In India he ordained the first native pastor of the Episcopal Church, Christian David, in his capacity as Bishop of Calcutta. Heber died of apoplexy at Trichinopoly occasioned by a cold bath after strenuous work April 3, 1826. In 1828 his Journey Through India was published, followed two years later by The Life of Reginald Heber, D. D., Lord Bishop of Calcutta, by his Widow. In 1837 three volumes of his Parish Sermons appeared. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


15, 169, 312, 559


Hebrew, 17th century, arr. Lyon, Meyer, c. 1751-97



Heermann, Johann, 1585-1647

Johann Heermann was born October 11, 1585, in Raudten, Silesia. He was the fifth child in the family. As the other children had died at an early age, the parents were naturally worried when Johann also was taken seriously ill. In their prayers to God they made the solemn promise that if their son’s life was spared, they would educate him for the ministry, even though they should be compelled to beg for the necessary means. Their son recovered, and his parents now sought to fulfil their promise, although they were very poor. Johann attended school in Raudten and Wolau, but was again stricken with sickness and had to return home. Again he recovered and continued his studies at Raudten. In 1602 he came to Fraustadt in Posen, where he was engaged as a tutor for Valerius Herberger’s son. Herberger esteemed the studious and talented youth very highly. Heermann, on his part, no doubt found, in the circle of the pious and lovable pastor’s home, rich opportunity for spiritual development. In the spring of 1603 he entered the gymnasium of Breslau, and in the fall of the following year he went to Brieg, where he became the tutor of two young noblemen. Here he became acquainted with the poet M. Zuber and was crowned poet laureate with the title: “Poeta laureatus caesareus.” In 1609 he went to Strassburg with the intention of completing his studies, but a vicious eye-disease compelled him to return to his home again in 1610. Georg von Kottwitz called him as his assistant in the town of Köben, and shortly afterwards he became the regular pastor of that city. But soon began a period of severe trials during which he was to be trained to sing songs unto the Lord. The Thirty Years’ War broke out, and he had to witness the devastation of his fatherland. His brethren of the faith were persecuted and the testimony of the Gospel was held in contempt. Then came sickness again. His wife died in 1617, and in 1623 he suffered a severe attack of throat trouble which finally compelled him to give up his preaching. He called the hymns written during this period his Thränen-Lieder (Songs of Tears, of Sorrow), but they are also filled with divine “light” and “comfort.” Our present hymn was found in this collection. The city of Köben was sacked four times. Heermann lost all his property, and his life was often in danger. Once a Croatian soldier swung his saber over him; at another time several soldiers with drawn swords pressed in upon him; a third time he saved his life by crossing the river Oder in the midst of a rain of bullets. Following these ravages, pestilence broke out in 1631 and caused the death of 550 people. During these severe visitations, Heermann wrote one of his finest hymns, “Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen” (Zion mourns in fear and anguish; Ev. Luth. Hymn Bk. 505: Zion klager med stor Smerte; Landst. Am. Ed. 712; Synod H. Bk. 272). During the latter years of his life he was frequently confined to his bed. During this period he also experienced the great sorrow of seeing his son become a Roman Catholic. In response to the father’s pleadings and admonishings the young man finally returned to the Lutheran faith, but died shortly after. There is strong suspicion that he was poisoned by the Jesuits. Heermann lived yet for four years, but was steadily losing strength. As he felt death approaching he wrote these words: “Lord, behold, he whom Thou lovest is sick” (John 11:3), and his constant prayer was, “Lord Jesus, come and give me release.” He died February 17, 1647, at Lissa, Posen. By his own request the sermon at his funeral was preached upon the text, 1 Pet. 5:2-4, “Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock. And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.” Heermann composed in all about 400 hymns, of which many are counted among the most precious gems in Lutheran hymnody. His hymns breathe the Lutheran spirit, but they are of a more subjective trend than those of his predecessors. Next to Luther and Paul Gerhardt, Heermann is the most popular hymn-writer of the Lutheran Church. (Partly based on Skaar’s estimate.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HEERMANN, Johann (1585-1647), was born on October 11, 1585, son of Johannes Heermann, furrier at Raudten, Silesia, and was the fifth and only surviving child of his parents. He passed through a severe illness in his childhood, during which his mother vowed that if he would recover, she would educate him for the ministry, even though she had to beg the necessary money. Heermann attended schools at Raudten, Wohlau, and Fraustadt, the St. Elizabeth Gymnasium at Breslau, and the Gymnasium at Brieg. At Fraustadt Heermann was engaged as tutor for the Rev. Valerius Herberger’s sons. The pastor esteemed Heermann very highly, and Heermann found rich opportunity for spiritual development in the circle of the pious and lovable pastor’s home. Later Heermann became the tutor of the sons of Baron Wenzel von Rothkirch, and as such he accompanied them to the University of Strassburg in 1609, but an eye affection caused him to return to Raudten in the following year. In 1611, upon the recommendation of Baron Wenzel, Heermann was appointed diaconus of Köben, a small town on the Oder, and within a year was advanced to the pastorate. After 1623 Heermann suffered from a throat affection, which finally stopped his preaching in 1634. Four years later he retired to Lissa in Posen, where he died on February 17, 1647. Johann Heermann lived during the distresses of the Thirty Years War. During his pastorate at Köben the town was plundered four times and devastated by fire and pestilence. Several times Heermann lost all his movables; once he had to keep away from Köben for 17 weeks, twice he was nearly sabered; and once he heard bullets whistle over his head as he and others fled across the Oder in a frail boat. He also suffered the sorrow of losing his son to the Roman Catholics. However, the son returned to the Lutheran faith only to die shortly afterward. There was a strong suspicion that he was poisoned. Heermann was indeed well grounded in the school of affliction. As a hymn-writer Heermann ranks with the best of his century. Some regard him second only to Gerhardt. He composed 400 hymns, many of which are counted as the most precious gems in Lutheran hymnody. Heermann began writing Latin poems about 1605, and in 1608 he was crowned poet laureate. He also marks the transition from the objectivism of the Reformation period to the subjectivism which followed him. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


198, 213, 221, 292, 293, 374, 470, 475, 550, 599


Heilige Seelenlust, Breslau, 1657



Held, Heinrich, 1620-c. 1659

It was written by Heinrich Held, a lawyer of Guthrau, Silesia, educated in Königsberg, d. cat 1659. The Danish translator is unknown. Our present English version was rendered by Dr. C. W. Schaffer (b. 1813 in Maryland; d. 1896), professor of theology at the Lutheran Seminary in Philadelphia. The melody is taken from Freylinghausen’s Gesangbuch, 1704. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HELD, Heinrich (1620 - ca.1659). Heinrich Held was the son of Valentin Held of Guhrau, Silesia. He studied at the University of Königsberg (c. 1637-40), Frankfort on the Oder (1643), and Leyden. In 1647 Held was in residence at Rostock. He then became a licentiate of Law and settled as a lawyer in Guhrau, where he died in 1659 or before Michaelmas, 1661. Held was one of the best Silesian hymn-writers, taught in the school of affliction resulting from the Thirty Years War. His only extant poetical work is his Deutscher Gedichte Vortrab, Frankfort on the Oder, 1643. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


165, 438


Helder, Bartholomäus, d. 1635

HELDER, Bartholomäus (?-1635), was born at Gotha, son of John Helder, at the time superintendent in Gotha. In 1607 he became schoolmaster at Friemar, near Gotha, and in 1616 pastor at Remstädt, also near Gotha. He died of the pestilence on October 28, 1635. Helder was a distinguished hymn-writer and composer. His hymns rapidly became known and were nearly all taken into the Thuringian Hymnal. In the Cantionale Sacrum there are over 50 hymns that are attributed to him. Helder published his hymns in two collections: Cymbalum Genethliacum, Erfurt, 1615; Cymbalum Davidicum, Erfurt, 1620. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Helmbold, Ludwig, 1532-98

Ludwig Helmbold was born January 13, 1532, in Mühlhausen in Thüringen. At first he attended school in his native town. In 1547 he entered the University of Leipzig, and later studied at the University of Erfurt. In 1550 he became rector of a school in Mühlhausen. But in spite of his great ability and faithfulness of service, there were some who persisted in making his work unpleasant, so that he resigned from this position and resumed his studies at Erfurt. In 1554 he began to conduct public lectures on poetry. In 1562 a gymnasium was established in Erfurt, and Helmbold was given a position here. During the following year the pestilence occurred, and upwards of 4,000 of the population were stricken. The work at the university and other schools had to be discontinued. Helmbold and many others left the city. He went home to his native town. When the university opened again, in 1565, Helmbold was appointed dean of the department of philosophy, and in 1566 was made poet laureate by Emperor Maximilian II. In 1570 he was compelled to discontinue his work at the university because of a conflict with the Catholics, the council being too weak to defend him. Now he continued his theological studies, and in 1571 was made deacon of the church of St. Mary’s in Mühlhausen and, in 1586, pastor of the Church of St. Blasius and superintendent of Mühlhausen. In 1598 he was cast upon the sick-bed and, as he understood that the end was drawing near, he called his colleagues together and exhorted them to fraternal harmony and not to set their hearts on the things of this world. He died April 8, 1598. His favorite slogan was expressed in 1 Tim. 1:15: “This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.” He wrote several Latin hymns for use in the schools. Among other compositions he produced a versified edition of the Augsburg Confession. Ludvig Helmbold wrote about 400 hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HELMBOLD, Ludwig (1532-1598), German theologian and hymnist, was born on January 13, 1532, at Mühlhausen, Thuringia. His father was Stephan Helmbold, a woolen manufacturer. He received his education at Leipzig and at Erfurt. He served as lecturer at the University of Erfurt. In 1566 he was crowned poet-laureate by Emperor Maximilian II. He remained at Erfurt until the year 1570, when he had a violent disagreement with the other members of the faculty. Though he was now already 39 years old, he began the study of theology in earnest to prepare himself for the ministry. In 1571 he delivered his first sermon at Bollstädt. He became deacon and later pastor of the Liebfrauenkirche in his home town. His heart and soul were so much in his writings that he composed verse to the very last day of his life, April 8, 1598. His last hymn was: “Du kennst mein Seufzen, Herr Christ.” He also wrote a complete metrical version of the Augsburg Confession. He published Geistliche Lieder, 1575; Neue Geistliche Lieder, 1595. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


186, 465, 551


Hemy, Henri Frédéric, 1818-88

The melody is by Henri F. Hemy, England, 1818-1888, altered by James G. Walton, England, 1821-1905. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Herberger, Valerius, 1562-1627

HERBERGER, Valerius (1562-1627), was born April 21, 1562, at Fraustadt, Posen. He studied at Frankfurt a. Oder and at Leipzig. When he had been at the University of Leipzig for two years, he was called back to Fraustadt to teach school. Later he became diaconus of St. Mary’s Church there, 1590, and finally chief pastor, 1599. Herberger was an outstanding preacher in his day. Because of his evangelical sermons, he was called: “Jesusprediger.” The Romanists nicknamed him “The little Luther.” He was also known under the name “the evangelical Abraham of Santa Clara”. In his early days Herberger came close to missing his calling. For when he was but seventeen years old, his father died, and Valerius decided to become a shoemaker to support his mother. He was finally dissuaded from this plan by his relatives. In 1604 his congregation at Fraustadt was ousted from its beautiful large church by King Sigismund III to make room for a small group of Romanists. The new place of worship was called “Kripplein Christi,” and Herberger became known as the “Prediger am Kripplein Christi.” He died May 18, 1627. Herberger was a man of prayer. He led a very good Christian life and set an excellent example for his people. He was known far and wide as a man with an apostolic spirit. Herberger published many writings, predominantly sermon books: Evangelische Herzpostille; Epistolische Herzpostille; Geistliche Trauerbinden (funeral sermons); Himmlisches Jerusalem. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Herbert, George, 1593-1632

George Herbert was born April 3, 1593, Montgomery Castle, England. Herbert attended Westminster School and Trinity College at Cambridge, England. When he was appointed the school’s Public Orator, it became his duty to give speeches—in Latin—to visiting dignitaries, and to give thanks for books donated to the school library. King James I was impressed with Herbert, and it seemed for a while he might make Herbert an ambassador. When these hopes were dashed by the king’s death, Herbert fell back on his original career plans, and was ordained in 1626. His first appointment was as vicar, then rector, of the parish of Bemerton and Fugglestone. He produced a book of poems titled The Temple, many of which were published posthumously as hymns. Died: March 1, 1632, Bemerton, Wiltshire, England, where he is buried. [The Cyber Hymnal]

22, 442


Herbert, Petrus, d. 1571

Petrus Herbert was very likely born at Fulnek in Moravia. In 1562 he was ordained pastor of a congregation of Bohemian-Moravian Brethren, and was soon made a member of the church council in his church. He was tendered many positions of trust. He was sent as the representative of his church to the conference with Calvin and later to Duke Christopher of Württemberg, to make arrangements concerning the placing of young Bohemian and Moravian students at the School of Tübingen. He was also a member of the delegation sent to Vienna to present before Emperor Maximilian II the revised confession of the Moravian Church and their new German hymn book, Kirchengeseng. This hymn book contained 92 of Herbert’s hymns. It was published in 1566, and Herbert himself was one of the chief editors. A later edition, 1639, contains 104 of his hymns. His hymns are praised very highly. No. 90 in Landstad’s Hymn Book is by Petrus Herbert. Herbert died, while yet a comparatively young man, in Eibenschütz, 1571. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HERBERT, Petrus (?-1571), was either a resident or a native of Fulnek, Moravia. In 1562 he was ordained a priest of the United Brethren (Moravian) and in 1567 became a member of the Select Council. Later Herbert became Consenior of the Unity. The Unity entrusted him with many important missions: deputy to confer with Calvin; to arrange with Duke Christoph of Württemberg for the education at Tübingen of young men from the Bohemian Brethren; deputy to Vienna to present the revised form of the Brethren’s Confession of Faith to the Emperor Maximilian Il; in 1564 and again in 1566 to present their new German hymn-book. Herbert died a comparatively young man at Eibenschütz. He was one of the principal compilers of the Moravian hymn-book, or Kirchengesang, 1566, and he himself contributed 90 hymns to it. In a later edition, 1639, 104 hymns are attributed to him. A number of Herbert’s hymns are translated from the Bohemian. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Herman, Nikolaus, c. 1480-1561

Nicolaus Herman, who lived at the time of Luther, was a choirmaster and school teacher in the mountain district of Joachimsthal, Bohemia, near the border of Saxony. He was a warm friend of his pastor, Johannes Mathesius, and when the latter had delivered a good sermon, Herman made use of it as a text for a hymn. In this way he produced his Sontags Euangelia vber das gantze Jar, in Gesenge verfasset, Für die Kinder vnd Christlichen Hausveter, Durch N. H. in Joachimsthal (1560). Besides this he composed his songs for the miners, and especially for his beloved young people, for whom he wrote a great deal of the Biblical history in verse form. (Skaar.) Herman is especially remarkable in that, unlike the other Reformation hymn writers, he not only sings about God’s work of salvation. but also weaves into his hymns the thoughts of this life’s work and strife, together with the joys and sorrows of the ordinary home-life. In this way he directs it all into the sphere of the spiritual life, and dedicates the whole to a life in God. For this reason his hymns and songs are strongly affected by the folksong. This popular and unpretentious composer accordingly introduced a new era in Lutheran hymnody. In many instances he composed the melodies for his own hymns.

In his old age Herman suffered from rheumatism and was confined to his easy chair. After writing a song concerning the ascension of Elijah, Herman adds a stanza about his sickness and suffering with this ending: “God, take Thy suffering Herman home, where Elijah is rejoicing.” Concerning his death Mathesius writes, “Nicolaus Herman, a good musician, who has composed many chorales and German songs, has peacefully passed away in the name of his Lord, the 3rd day of May, 1561.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HERMAN, Nikolaus (c. 1480-1561), is associated with Joachimsthal in Bohemia, just over the mountains from Saxony. It is not known whether he was a native of this place, but he seems to have been there in 1518 and was certainly in office there in 1524. For many years he was Master in the Latin School and Cantor or Organist and Choirmaster in the church. Toward the end of his life Herman suffered from gout and had to resign even his post as cantor a number of years before his death. He died in Joachimsthal on May 3, 1561. Herman was a great friend and helper of his pastor, Johann Mathesius. When Mathesius preached a specially good sermon, Herman straightway embodied its leading ideas in a hymn. His hymns, however, were not primarily written for use in church, but were intended for the boys and girls in the schools, to supplant profane songs in the mouths of the young. Herman was a poet of the people, homely, earnest, and picturesque in style. He was an ardent lover of music and a very good organist. The chorales which he published with his hymns are apparently all of his own composition and are among the best of the Reformation-period. He published Die Sontags Evangelia über das gantze Jar, 1560, and Die Historien von der Sintflut, 1562. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


78, 148, 417, 480, 481, 562

80, 81, 148, 153, 275, 394, 397, 590


Herrnschmidt, Johann Daniel, 1675-1723

HERRNSCHMIDT, Johann Daniel (1675-1723), was born at Bopfingen, Württemberg, on April 11, 1675, the son of G. A. Herrnschmidt, who was diaconus and then town-preacher in that community. He entered the University of Altdorf in 1696 and graduated (M. A. ) in 1698. In the autumn of that year he went to Halle. In 1702 he was made assistant to his father. In 1712 he became superintendent, court-preacher, and Consistorialrath at Idstein. The same year he graduated (D. D. ) at Halle. He was appointed Professor of Theology at Halle in 1715 and the following year subdirector of the Orphanage and Pädagagium there. His colleague in the management of the Orphan House was August Hermann Francke. He died at Halle, February 5, 1723. He was one of the best of the older Pietistic school. His hymns are Scriptural but do not possess much poetic force. Most of them were written between 1698 and 1702 while Herrnschmidt was at Halle. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Herzberger, Frederick William, 1859-1930

HERZBERGER, Frederick William (1859-1930). Herzberger was born October 23, 1859, in Baltimore, Maryland. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor and was orphaned at the age of two years. Herzberger graduated from Concordia Seminary in 1882 and first served as a pioneer missionary in Arkansas, where he founded six congregations. After serving in Carson, Kansas, Chicago, Illinois, and Hammond, Indiana, Herzberger was installed as the first city missionary of the Missouri Synod in 1898 for the city of St. Louis. In 1903 he founded the Society for Homeless Children. Herzberger was instrumental in founding the Lutheran Altenheim and the Lutheran Convalescent Home of St. Louis and aided in such endeavors as the Associated Lutheran Charities, the Wheat Ridge Sanitarium, and the Bethesda Home at Watertown, Wisconsin. Herzberger was a poet of ability and the author of The Family Altar. He died, August 26, 1930, at St. Louis. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


tr. 164, 507


Hey, Johann Wilhelm, 1790-1854



Heyden, Sebald, 1499-1561



Heyder, Friedrich Christian, 1677-1754

HEYDER (Heider), Friedrich Christian (1677-1754). He was born in Merseburg; became Diaconus, 1699; pastor in Zörbig near Halle, 1706 41; died-there as emeritus. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Hiller, Philip Friedrich, 1699-1769

Philip Friedrich Hiller was born in Mühlhausen, Württemberg, January 6, 1699. He was educated in a school for pastors in Denkendorf, which was under the management of J. A. Bengel; in Maulbronn; and at the University of Tübingen. In 1720 he received the master’s degree from the latter institution. He served as assistant pastor in Brettach from 1724 to 1727. He then served as curate and instructor in Nurnberg until 1732, when he became pastor in Neckargrönningen. In 1736 he accepted the pastorate in his native city. In 1748 he accepted a call to Steinheim, where he remained until his death, April 24, 1769. Three years after he arrived in Steinheim he lost his voice, and, as a result was compelled to secure an assistant.

Hiller’s best hymns appeared in his Arndt’s Paradies-Gärtlein, in teutsche Lieder, Nurnberg, about 1730. At an earlier date Paul Gerhardt had composed one of his most beautiful hymns, using as his text a prayer included in Johann Arndt’s famous publication of 1612. The hymn is: “O Jesu Christ, mein schönstes Licht” (L. H. 347) and is entitled Paradies-Gärtlein. This publication by Paul Ger­hardt served as a stimulus to Hiller, and as a result he composed hymns based on all the prayers in Arndt’s publication of 1612. Hiller’s hymnbook con­tains 301 hymns. 297 of these are based on the prayers of Arndt, and four are original composi­tions. His second hymnbook is Geistliches Liederkästlein, Stuttgart, 1762; and a second volume ap­peared in 1767. Both of these collections contain 366 short hymns, one for each day in the year. A new edition containing all of Hiller’s hymns—1075 in all—was published by C. C. E. Ehmann in 1844, and a second impression again in 1858.

Hiller is the most distinguished as well as the most productive of all the early hymn writers of Württemberg. His hymns are Scriptural and plain. They breathe forth a depth of Christian experience they offer guidance and comfort in the vicissitudes of life and are, therefore, probably best adapted to use for family devotions. l hey were greatly appreciated in his native land and in southern Germany. Hiller has been called the “Swabian Gerhardt.” When his voice failed him and he was unable to continue preaching, he concentrated most of his efforts upon the writing of hymns. Through the medium of song, God permitted his “voice” to be heard, instructing, warning, comforting, and inspiring thousands of people in the surrounding countries. He learned to realize the truth of the Biblical statement: “To them that love God all things work together for good” (Rom. 8:28). When his voice became silent, he wrote richer and sweeter hymns than before. Even at the present time the Württemberg hymnbook contains about 50 of Hiller’s hymns. About 20 have been translated into English The melody (Baden) is furnished by Severus Gastorius, 1673. (From J. Mearns and Söderberg.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Hillert, Richard W., b. 1923



Hilton, John, 1599-1657



Himmlische Harmony, Mainz, 1628

332, 516


Hintze, Jakob, 1622-1702

The melody (Salzburg) is by Jacob Hintze (1622-1700), “stadt-musikus” of Berlin. After Johann Crüger’s death, Hintze undertook to superintend further issues of the Praxis Pietatis Melica, and added a number of new tunes. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Hirthenlieder, Altdorf, 1653



Hodenberg, Bodo von, 1640



Hodges, E., 1864

setting: 214


Hoff, Erik Christian, 1832-94

The melody is by Erik Christian Hoff (b. 1832). Hoff was an organist in Christiania. Among other works he has published a book of chorals for church use. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HOFF, Erik Christian (1832-?), was organist in Christiania (now Oslo). Among other works he has published a book of chorals for church use. Other details of his life are lacking. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


56, 367


Holden, Oliver, 1765-1844

In America the melody “Coronation” (L. H. 6) is used very extensively. This was composed by the American composer, Oliver Holden (b. 1765) of Massachusetts. He was a dealer in music and also served as director of music. He published The American Harmony in 1792, and the Worcester Collection in 1797. Holden died in Charleston, Mass., Sept. 4th, 1844. The English melody is the best and is especially effective with the three-fold, “Crown Him.” But it requires a greater range of voice (from low B to F). Holden’s melody is used most extensively in this country, both because it is “ours” and because it is melodious and very singable. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HOLDEN, Oliver (1765-1844), was born in Shirley, Massachusetts, on September 18, 1765. He was trained as a carpenter and moved to Charlestown at 21 to help rebuild the city after it had been burned by the British. He was active in the real-estate business and was elected Representative to Congress. He later owned a music store, conducted a number of singing-schools, and compiled song-books. When Washington visited Boston in 1789, he wrote the words and music for the song which the choir sang as Washington reached the Old State House. With almost entirely his own funds he built the Puritan Church in Boston and served as its preacher. He edited and published several hymn-books, among them American Harmony, 1793, and The Worcester Collection, 1797. He died September 4, 1844. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




Holm, Nils Johannes, 1778-1845

Nils Johannes Holm was born 1778, in Sonderfarup, near Ribe, Denmark. In 1820 he became superintendent of the congregation of the United Brethren of Christiania and served there until 1834, when he returned to Denmark. He became pastor at Kristiansfeld, where he died in 1845. W. A. Wexels says concerning Holm: “Nils Johannes Holm is a man of keen appreciation, of considerable knowledge, and takes a lively interest in the affairs of the Kingdom of God. His lectures on Sunday afternoons are attended by a goodly number to considerable profit. He wrote a number of works, especially for children. His hymnal, Harpen, contains 366 hymns—original hymns, translations, and revisions of other hymns, intended mainly for the use of the congregation of ‘Brethren’ and ‘Friends.’ He edited and published a mission paper, which has attained its fifth volume, and serves as a connecting link between the ‘Haugeans’ and the ‘United Brethren.’ Throughout all this activity he has sought, according to his viewpoint, to extend the Kingdom of Christ. His writings will also attain this worthy end, but their Christian value would have been enhanced if the language, the development, and the presentation of ideas had been given more of the Biblical character and spirit.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Homburg, Ernst Christoph, 1605-81

Ernst Christoph Homburg was born 1605 in Mühla, near Eisenach. He studied law and located in Naumburg, where he remained until his death, June 2, 1681. Homburg was highly esteemed as a poet. During the early part of his life he lived as a worldling, and his poetic productions from 1638 until 1653 are marked by this characteristic. In 1648 he was made a member of “The Fruitbearing Society.” But Homburg and his wife were both visited by sickness and reverses. Tribulation taught him to seek the Lord and to sing praises unto Him. And as trial and suffering aroused him to more sober thought, his inner spiritual life continually developed through his experiences in the way of the cross. Throughout his life he was purged in the furnace of affliction. In the foreword to his songs, which were commonly written on Sundays, he says: “If anyone, thinking it strange that I am writing hymn poetry, should ask: ‘Is Saul also among the prophets?’ or scoffingly say, ‘He follows the common custom of the world and sacrifices unto the world the most precious flower of his youth, but renders only the dry chaff of old age unto God,’ then he shall know that I have been especially prompted to do this by reason of the heavy cross with which my good and faithful Lord has visited me. During all this time I have found my best comfort and strength in the Word of God. For the cross which is placed upon us teaches us to fear God, and spiritual struggle trains us to give heed to the Word. A Christian who has not endured the cross of tribulation is like unto a pupil who has not yet received his book of lessons, or a bride who has not yet been adorned with the bridal wreath. Our heavenly Father is such that He teaches us through humiliation; unveils spiritual mysteries through the chastisement of our flesh; makes us rejoice through sorrow; brings us to life through death.” At first Homburg did not intend to have his hymns published, but he desired to use them for the strengthening of his own life in faith and trust and in order that he might, in the privacy of his home, with heart and mouth sing praises unto God. But his friends induced him to have his hymns published. He did not consider the criteria of the world, but sang unto the glory of God, giving expression to his thoughts and sentiments in a most direct and simple form. He wrote 148 hymns which appeared under the title Geistliche Lieder, in two volumes, 1658-59.—The hymn was translated into Danish by Fr. Rostgaard; into English by R. Massie, 1857. (For notes on the melody, see Vol. I, No. 42.) [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HOMBURG, Ernst Christoph (1605-1681), was born at Mihla near Eisenach. As Clerk of the Assizes and Counselor he practiced at Naumburg, Saxony. In 1648 he became a member of the Frult-bearing Society and later a member of the Elbe Swan Order founded by Johann Rist in 1660. He was regarded by his contemporaries as a poet of the first rank. His earlier poems were secular, including love and drinking songs. Domestic troubles arising from the illness of himself and of his wife, and other afflictions, led him to seek the Lord, especially through hymn-writing. In the foreword to his songs, which were commonly written on Sundays, he says: “If any one, thinking it strange that I am writing hymn poetry, would ask: ‘Is Saul also among the prophets?’ or scoffingly say, ‘He follows the common custom of the world and sacrifices unto the world the most precious flower of his youth, but renders only the dry chaff of old age unto God,’ then he shall know that I have been especially prompted to do this by reason of the heavy cross with which my good and faithful Lord has visited me. During all this time I have found my best comfort and strength in the Word of God.” Homburg did not intend to have his hymns published, but he desired to use them for the strengthening of his own life in faith and trust and in order that he might, in the privacy of his home, with heart and mouth sing praises to God. He died, June 2, 1681, at Naumburg. His hymns appeared in two parts, Geistliche Leider, Erster Theil and Ander Theil, 1659. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


333, 336


Hopkins, Edward John, 1818-1901

HOPKINS, Edward John (1818-1901), was born on June 30, 1818, at Westminster, London. He was a chorister in the Chapel Royal under William Hawes from 1826 to 1833 and played for services at Westminster Abbey before he was sixteen. He was a pupil of T. F. Walmisley. At the age of 16 he secured the appointment of organist at Mitcham Parish Church. In 1844 he went to Temple Church, where he remained for forty-five years until his retirement in 1898. In that year he edited the Temple Choral Service Book. Earlier, in 1876, he was selected to complete the Wesleyan Tune Book, after the deaths of H. J. Gauntlett and George Cooper, who had started the work. Hopkins was a composer of works for the organ and much church music. He also wrote on the organ and edited ancient music. Chaste melody, unobtrusive harmony, grateful inner parts, and a devotional fervor characterize his music. He died February 4, 1901. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]





Hopkins, John Henry, 1820-91

John Henry Hopkins was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 28, 1820. He was educated at the University of Vermont. He was ordained to the ministry in 1850 and served as rector of Christ’s Church, Williamsport, Pennsylvania. He died August 13, 1891, in Troy, New York. Hopkins published Poems by the Wayside, 1883; the above mentioned Carols, Hymns and Songs, first edition, 1862; second edition, 1866; third edition, 1882. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]



Hopkins, Josiah R. 1786-1862


tr. 75


Horn (Roh), Johann, c. 1490-1547



Horsley, William, 1774-1858

HORSLEY, William (1774-1858), was born in London. He was handicapped in his early musical training by a teacher who did him more harm than good. However, naturally endowed as he was, Horsley became organist of Ely Chapel, Holborn, in 1794, of the Asylum for Female Orphans in 1802, of Belgrave Chapel in 1812, and of the Charterhouse in 1838. Horsley was a great friend of Mendelssohn and one of the founders of the Philharmonic Society of London. He published a number of collections of songs, glees, psalm- and hymn-tunes, and several sonatas. He edited Vocal Harmony in 1830. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]




How, William Walsham, 1823-97

William Walsham How, born Dec. 13, 1823, in Shrewsbury, England, was educated at Wadham College, Oxford (B. A., 1845). He was ordained to the ministry in the Episcopal Church in 1846 and served as curate of St. Georges, Kidderminster, and Holy Cross, Shrewsbury. In 1851 he became rector of Wittington; 1879 rector of St. Andrews, Undershaft, and ordained assistant bishop for East London. In 1888 he was made bishop of Wakefield. He died in 1897. He wrote Commentaries on the Four Gospels; Plain Words for Children; Lectures on Pastoral Work; Sermon Collections; Three All Saints Summers and Other Poems. Besides these works he wrote between fifty and sixty hymns, which were published in Psalms and Hymns, 1854. Almost all of these are in common use. His hymns are marked by exceptional rhythm and melody and are filled with deeply religious sentiment. They are simple and Scriptural—popular—in a good sense. Many of his best hymns are found in The Lutheran Hymnary. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]

HOW, William Walsham (1823-1897), son of William Wybergh How, a solicitor, was born in Shrewsbury, December 13, 1823, and educated at Shrewsbury School and Wadham College, Oxford (B. A. 1845). He took holy orders in 1846 and was Curate at Kidderminster and later of Holy Cross, Shrewsbury. In 1851 he was made Rector of Whittington; in 1879 he was appointed Rector of St. Andrew’s, Undershaft, and was consecrated Bishop-Suffragan (of Bedford) for East London; in 1888 he was made Bishop of Wakefield after having declined the Bishopric of Manchester, without even mentioning it to his wife, and that of Durham, one of the most distinguished posts in the Church of England. He died August 10, 1897. In addition to his very useful pastoral books and other works, he wrote a good many hymns and published Psalms and Hymns in 1854; he was one of the editors of Church Hymns, 1871, sponsored by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, of which Arthur Sullivan was the musical editor. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


31, 156, 171, 225, 445, 554


Howells, Herbert, 1892-1983



Hoyle, R. Birch, 1875-1939


tr. 73


Hubert, Konrad, 1507-77




Hughes, John, 1873-1932




Hurd, David, b. 1950



setting: 273


Hus, Jan, c. 1369-1415

HUSS (Hus), John (1373?-1415), the great Bohemian reformer, was born at Hussinecz, Bohemia. In 1402 he became rector of the University of Prague and began to preach in the vernacular. Six years later he was forbidden by Archbishop Sbynko to perform the priestly acts and to preach. Huss became the popular champion. He was excommunicated in 1410. In his retirement he wrote his principal book; De Ecclesia, in which he asserted that the Church is the communion of all who are predestined to salvation, and that Christ and not the Pope is the head of the universal Church. The Ecumenical Council at Constance tried and condemned him as a heretic on July 6, 1415, and had him burned at the stake. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]


316, 317


Huxhold, Harry N., b. 1922, st. 1-2




Hymns Ancient and Modern, 1904

tr. 81