Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Handbook
— Biographies and Sources —
Idle, Christopher M., b. 1938
59, 370, 425
Irons, William Josiah, 1812-83
William Josiah Irons, born 1812, died 1884, minister in England and doctor of theology, translated “Dies irae” in 1848. During this year of the revolution Dr. Irons resided in Paris. The archbishop, D. A. Affre, was shot and killed upon the barricade at the Bastille, while trying to persuade the rebels to cease firing. This took place on the 25th of June. On the 7th of July Irons was present at the memorial service conducted in the Notre Dame Cathedral. It was a most impressive service. The heart of the bishop was exhibited in a vessel in the chancel. The ritual, and especially “Dies irae,” sung by a large choir of priests, made a profound impression upon Irons. When he came back to his residence he wrote his translation of this hymn based upon the Latin text of the Paris Missal, and this is the most popular English version of this famous hymn. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
IRONS, William Josiah (1812-1883), was born at Hoddesdon, England, September 12, 1812. He took his B. A. degree at Queens College, Oxford, 1833, and became a clergyman of the Church of England, 1835. He served at various places until he became rector of St. Mary-Woolnoth in 1872, formerly held by his fathers friend, John Newton. He was also Bampton Lecturer in 1870 and Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral. He died June 18, 1883. The Bampton Lectures on Christianity as Taught by St. Paul were his most important work. Numerous hymns and compilations of hymn-books are credited to him. He translated the Dies Irae and Quicumque vult. He published Metrical Psalter, 1857; Brompton Metrical Psalter, 1861; Hymns for Use in Church, 1866; Psalms and Hymns for the Church, 1873. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Isaac, Heinrich, c. 1450-1517
This tune was composed, or possibly only arranged, by Heinrich (Henricus) Isaac, born cat 1450. Isaac was a prominent and prolific composer, living for some time in Florence (Firenze). For a time he was concert master at the court of Emperor Maximilian I. He composed 24 masses, and his Choralis Constantini embraces the complete Catholic liturgy. His music bears the mark of the German and Italian school as well as the influence of the Netherland school.—Concerning this melody, Mozart said that he would gladly give his best production in exchange for it. A similar sentiment was at one time expressed by Johann Sebastian Bach, who employed this melody in several of his compositions. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
ISAAK (Isaac, Izac, Ysack, Yzac), Heinrich (c.1450-c.1527), also known in Italy by the name of Arrigo Tedesco, was one of the foremost musicians of his day. He was very likely a Netherlander, in spite of the fact that the Italians called him Tedesco or Gemmanus, as his testament designates him as Ugonis de Flandria. He was at Ferrara for a time, and then went to Florence to serve as organist of the Church of San Giovanni. He was also organist at the Medici Chapel, 1477-93, and music-master to the children of Lorenzo the Magnificent. After the death of his patron in 1492, Isaak appears to have remained for some years in Italy, where he enjoyed a great reputation. He left for Vienna in 1496 and became Symphonista regis, or chapelmaster, to Maximilian I at Innsbruck, 1497-1515. He retired on an annual pension of 150 florins, returned to Italy, and was recommended to Duke Ercole of Ferrara, but without result. The last trace history gives of him is at San Lorenzo Maggiore in Rome, old and sick, and without means. Isaak died in Florence. He was a prolific composer of motets, masses, chorales and songs. His masses number 23 or 24. His Choralis Constantini embraces the complete Roman Catholic liturgy. Isaak was an eminent contrapuntist. One of his peculiarities is the frequent appearance of the melody in the soprano, which was an unusual procedure at his time. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
266, 475, 569
Italian, 18th century
Jacobi, John Christian 1670-1750
Jacobs, Henry Eyster, 1844-1932
JACOBS, Henry Eyster (1844-1932), was born at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 10, 1844. He received his education in the College and Seminary at Gettysburg and from 1864 to 1867 served as professor in the College. He was home missionary at Pittsburgh, 1867-1868, and then became pastor at Philipsburg, Pennsylvania, and principal of Thiel Hall, 1868-1870, and then served as professor at Pennsylvania College, 1870 to 1883. From then until his death he was Professor of Systematic Theology at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. Among his works are the following: History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States; Elements of Religion; Martin Luther, the Hero of the Reformation; German Emigration to America; A Summary of Christian Faith. He was editor of the Lutheran Church Review from 1882 to 1896, translated Hutter’s Compendium of Lutheran Theology and H. Schmid’s Doctrinal Theology of the Lutheran Church. He died July 11, 1932. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Jeffrey, J., 1880
The English translation was rendered by J. Jeffrey in 1880. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
John of Damascus, c. 750
John of Damascus, or John the Damascene, was born in Damascus near the beginning of the 8th century. He was the last of the Greek Church Fathers and, according to Neale, he was also the greatest of the Greek hymn writers. Rudelbach says: “Throughout the Greek Church he was acknowledged as the foremost writer of sacred poetry; his hymns were likened to the sweet music of the lyre and the joyful notes of the song of the nightingale.” Together with his foster-brother, Cosmas, he was educated in Damascus and dwelt there several years. He was employed in several high offices of the state. Later on he gave away all his property and, together with Cosmas, retired to the cloister of St. Sabas, between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea. John of Damascus was highly recognized in the church for his great festival odes and other hymns. He was otherwise known as the ablest opponent of the so-called Iconoclasts (Image-destroyers). His appeal to legendary history and appreciation of the beautiful; to the intimate connection between the visible image and the invisible things of the spirit revealed to believers, furnished him with powerful weapons for the attack. He says: “I am too poor to possess books. I come to the church filled with worldly thoughts, and the glowing colors soothe me like a scene in the flower garden. Imperceptibly the glory of God takes possession of my soul. I see the exalted place and the crown of the martyrs, and I feel a holy and burning desire to emulate them. I kneel down, in the martyr I worship God and accept salvation. The Lord called His disciples blessed for what they had heard and seen, and through the picture (image) we share in the same blessedness.”
From the story of his youth the following incident is related: “The father of the Damascene was a lawyer and judge. One day he met a monk who had been taken prisoner by pirates at sea. He was doomed to die and stood weeping pleading for his life. When the judge ridiculed him for weeping, the monk answered: ‘I do not weep because I fear for my life, but I weep at the thought of the enormous mountain of learning which must perish with me,’ and he counted upon his fingers all the sciences which he had mastered. The judge was deeply moved, secured his release and entrusted to him the tutorship of his son.” In his later years John of Damascus served in the church of Jerusalem. His hymns, especially those written for the Easter Festival, the Ascension, and the St. Thomas Festival, had far-reaching influence upon the hymn writing of the Greek Church. Hymns connected with the name John Arklas have also been ascribed to John of Damascus. He has been called the “Thomas Aquinas of the Orient.”—It might be of interest to give an account of the incident which brought forth the present Easter hymn, the subject of this sketch. The scene is laid in Athens, Easter Eve. The midnight hour is drawing near. The archbishop and the priests, together with the king and the queen, come out from the church and ascend a large platform from which they may be seen by the crowd. The people stand round about in silent expectation, reverently holding their torches which are ready to be lighted. A muffled song of the monks is heard from a distance. The firing of a cannon announces the midnight hour. The old archbishop raises the cross toward the heavens and with a powerful and jubilant voice he exclaims: “Christos anesti” (Christ is arisen). The silence is broken by the triumphant shout of joy coming from the multitudes who repeat the grand message: “Christ is risen! Easter Morn is breaking, darkness fades away.” In a moment thousands of torches are lighted as by a magic stroke and the light is reflected from the many faces beaming with enthusiastic joy. The air is filled with the playing of instruments, the roll of drums and the roaring of cannons. The people shake hands and embrace each other. From the olive groves the rockets shoot up towards the sky. Christ is risen! He has conquered death, trampled it under foot, and by the power of His resurrection all the faithful, whose bodies are in their graves, shall arise unto eternal life. Thus the hymn of the priests, re-echoed by the multitudes, rings out exultingly with an impassionate spirit, which only the true Easter joy can create. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
JOHN OF DAMASCUS, ST. (c.750), Greek theologian and hymn-writer, was born in Damascus and educated by the elder Cosmas. He held an office under the Mohammedan Caliph and afterwards retired to the monastery of St. Sabas, near Jerusalem, where he composed theological works and hymns. He was ordained priest of the Church of Jerusalem late in life and lived to a high age; December 4, the day of his death, is assigned to him in the Greek calendar. He was one of the last of the Fathers of the Greek Church and has been called the greatest of her poets. He gave an immense impetus to Greek hymnody, and the arrangement of the Octoechus in accordance with the Eight Tones was his work. The best known of his canons is the Easter or Golden canon. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Jonson, B., 1572?-1637
Joseph the Hymnographer, c. 800-883
JOSEPH, THE HYMNOGRAPHER, ST. (c.800-883), was born in Sicily and received his early training at the Sicilian school of poets. He left Sicily in 830 for the monastic life at Thessalonica and moved successively to Constantinople, Rome, Crete (where he was a slave), and finally back to Constantinople. There he founded a monastery in connection with the Church of St. John Chrysostom. He was banished to the Chersonese for defense of the icons, but was recalled by the Empress Theodora and made Scenophylax (keeper of the sacred vessels) in the Great Church of Constantinople. He died at an advanced age in 883. His day in the calendar of the Greek Church is April 3. St. Joseph is the most voluminous of the Greek hymnwriters. He is said to have composed 1,000 canons. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Julian, John, 1839-1913
JULIAN, John (1839-1913), was born at Topcliffe, Yorkshire, eldest son of Thomas Julian of St. Agnes, Cornwall. He was vicar of Wincobank (18761915), and from 1905 onward vicar of Topcliffe. He was canon of York from 1901 on. He is noteworthy for his monumental Dictionary of Hymnology. He also wrote: Concerning Hymns; The Outgrowth of Some Literary, Scientific, and Other Hobbies; he composed a number of hymns and translations. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Katholisches Gesangbuch, 1686
Katholisches Gesangbuch, c. 1774-80
Katholisches Gesangbuch, Vienna, 1774
Katholisches Gesangbuch, Würzburg, 1828
Keble, John, 1792-1866
John Keble, son of the Reverend John Keble, the vicar of Coln St. Aldwin’s, Gloucestershire, was born in Fairford, England, April 25, 1792. He and his brother Thomas studied under their father’s tutorship until the age of 14, when he matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He proved himself to be a brilliant scholar, and within a short time received many marks of honor. He was graduated in 1810, and at the age of 18 years became Fellow at Oriel College. He was ordained in 1816 and became curate of East Leach and Burthope. In 1827 appeared his classic, The Christian Year, a collection of religious poems and hymns for the church year. It was said concerning these poems that “nothing equal to them existed in our language.” Ninety-six editions of this work were published under the direct supervision of the author. In the course of 25 years 108,000 copies were sold, and by 1873 the number had mounted to 305,300. The poems of this collection are really not church hymns in the strict sense of the term. But they have been a source of inspiration for many later hymn writers and many hymns have been made upon portions of Keble’s work. One author says: “I know of no body of poetry where purity and power, where knowledge of Holy Scripture and knowledge of the human heart, where the love of nature and the love of Christ are so wonderfully combined.” In 1831 Keble was appointed professor of poetry at Oxford. He also became one of the leaders in the reform movement through the Church of England, the so-called “Oxford Movement.” In this connection he produced a series of articles called The Tracts for the Times. In 1835 his father died, and the following year Keble was appointed vicar of Hursley, at which place he labored until his death, March 29, 1866. John Keble’s noble character and his pathetic love for his parents and brothers and sisters must be emphasized. In order to help them and be near them he time and again declined the offer of splendid positions in the church. His father being sickly, and his mother having died at an early age, John Keble assumed the duties of his father. Any one, and especially our theologians and pastors, will be benefited by studying the life of John Keble. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KEBLE, John (1792-1866), was born, April 25, 1792, at Fairford in Glaucestershire, and at the age of 15 won a scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. In 1812 he also won both the English and Latin prize essays. He was ordained deacon in 1815 and priest in 1816. From 1836, when he accepted the living of Hursley, near Winchester, his life was spent mostly in this small country parish, devoted faithfully to its simple duties, though he exerted great influence throughout England by a vast correspondence. Quiet and retiring as he was, he is yet considered, on Newman’s testimony, as the real author of the Oxford movement, to which he is held to have given the impulse by his sermon on National Apostasy, preached at Oxford in 1833. His important contribution to the literature of the movement was his share in the translations of the Library of the Fathers and in the Tracts for the Times, of which he wrote seven, besides being ultimately associated in counsel with the other authors. His The Christian Year, a volume of verse which he published anonymously in 1827 had a remarkable success and influence, not equaled by that of his later volume Lyra Innocentium, 1846. He was professor of poetry at Oxford from 1831 to 1841. He died at Bournemouth, March 29, 1866. Keble College in Oxford was founded as a memorial to him. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Kehl, Roy F., 1984
Keimann, Christian, 1607-62
Christian Keimann was born February 27, 1607, in Pankratz, Bohemia, where his father served as a minister. In 1627 he began his studies at the University of Wittenberg, receiving his master’s degree in 1634. The same year he was appointed associate director of the gymnasium of Zittau, and in 1638 was promoted to the position of director. He died in Zittau, 1662. Keimann was a prominent teacher and author, especially of scholastic writings. His hymns, about 13 in number, are among the best of his time; they breathe a firm conviction of faith; they are churchly; they are an expression of sound Christian experience and are characterized by exceptional poetic beauty. The melody was composed by James Tilleard (b. England, 1827, —d. 1876). A second melody by H. Pope has been taken from a Swedish book of chorales, where it was set to J. O. Wallin’s hymn: “Stilla jag pea dig vill akta.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KEIMANN (Keymann), Christian (1607-1662), was the son of Zacharias Keimann, a Lutheran pastor at Pankratz, Bohemia, where Christian was born on February 27, 1607. In 1627 Keimann entered the University of Wittenberg and in 1634 graduated (M. A.). The same year he was appointed by the Town Council of Zittau as Conrector of their Gymnasium, of which he became Rector in 1638. He was a distinguished teacher, author of a number of scholastic publications, several Scriptural plays, and of some thirteen hymns, almost all of which came into church use. They rank high among those of the seventeenth century, being of genuine poetic ring, fresh, strong, full of faith under manifold and heavy trials, and deeply spiritual. He died January 13, 1662, at Zittau. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Kelly, John, 1833-90
tr. 304, 341, 377
Kelly, Thomas, 1769-1854
Thomas Kelly, the son of an Irish judge of the same name, was born in Kellyville, Queens county, Ireland, July 13, 1769. It was his father’s wish that the son should study law, so he entered Dublin University. One of the works which he read awakened his interest for Hebrew, and during the course of his study of this language, he was brought in closer touch with the Holy Scriptures. This led him again to read other works of a religious nature. He was especially impressed by a treatise written by the pious William Roumaine. Having completed his reading of Roumaine’s work, Kelly determined to forsake the world and all its attractions and take up the study of theology. His religious fervor developed at first into fanaticism, and his asceticism undermined his health, until he finally found peace and comfort through faith in the grace of God through Jesus Christ. In 1792 he was ordained to the ministry in the Episcopalian Church and began to proclaim the old Gospel of sin and grace, of salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. He found a good friend and co-worker in the famous preacher Rowland Hill, who was also educated in the Church of England. Hill served for a time as traveling preacher in the western part of England and in Ireland. These two men were, however, soon to experience that such purely evangelical sermons did not please the leading men of the Episcopalian Church of Ireland. It did not harmonize with the viewpoint and requirement of the times. Rowland Hill and Kelly were forbidden by Archbishop Fowler to preach in his bishopric. In other words, they were suspended from the Episcopalian Church. But Archbishop Fowler could not forbid them to proclaim the Gospel. Thus Kelly became a so-called Dissenter preacher. He set up preaching places in Dublin and the surrounding districts, where he became the soul of the evangelical movement. He was met by strong opposition, not only from the archbishop and the clergy, but even from his own family. But in return he was loved by the common people and not the least by the poorer classes in Dublin. After some time he also gained universal recognition on account of his culture and thorough learning, but especially on account of his endearing personality, his sincere piety and humility, his charity work, and untiring zeal for the extension of the Kingdom of God. At the age of 30 he was married to a young lady, who shared his spiritual views and who brought him a goodly fortune. Thomas Kelly is the Prince of the Singers of Erin. In 1802 he issued a Collection of Psalms and Hymns Extracted from Various Authors. This contained a supplement of 33 hymns written by himself. In 1804 he published 98 original hymns: Hymns on Various Passages of Scripture. During a number of years this appeared in several enlarged editions, until, in the last edition of 1854, there were 765 original hymns by Kelly. It is evident that, among so many original hymns, many are of lesser merit. But the greater number in this collection are of high rank. About 100 of them are in universal use. One hymnologist asserts that Kelly is at his best in the hymns of praise and in the hymns written in the more modern meter. His hymns are characterized by simplicity and natural expression. His hymns reflect in the main his charming personality; they are lyrical and Biblical. They are not so subjective as the great number of hymns of the Methodist school. Kelly was a talented musician and wrote melodies for all the various metrical forms used in his hymnal. He died of heart failure in 1855, at the age of 86. As he felt death approaching he exclaimed: “Not my will, but Thine be done.” One of his friends read to him: “The Lord is my Shepherd.” He whispered: “The Lord is my All.” His last words. Later years have brought a new interest in Kelly’s hymns, particularly on account of the many beautiful melodies furnished for them by Miss Havergal. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KELLY, Thomas (1769-1854), was born at Kellyville, Athy, Queens County, Ireland, on July 13, 1769. His primary education was obtained at Portarlington and Kilkenny. He received his secondary education at Trinity College of Dublin University. He graduated with the highest honors. Expecting to become a lawyer, Kelly went to the Temple in London for that purpose. At the Temple he befriended Edmund Burke. While reading law Kelly had to study Hutchinson’s Moses Principla, which required him to study Hebrew. This in turn interested him in Romaine’s teachings. While thus engaged, Kelly developed a consciousness of sin that distressed him very much. He now practiced asceticism, and even jeopardized his life by his rigorous discipline. He took holy orders in the Established Church in 1792. At this time he became an intimate of Walter Shirley, and his sympathies were wholly with the evangelical movement. Because of the dearth of evangelical preaching, people very soon flocked to hear him preach in Dublin. This aroused the ire of Archbishop Fowler to such an extent that he forbade Kelly and his friend Rowland Hill to use the Irish pulpits. Kelly, however, continued preaching at Plundet Street and Bethesda in Dublin and also had meetings at an alderman’s home in Luson Street. Having seceded from the Established Church, Kelly built chapels with his own money on York Street, at Athy, Portarlington, Wexford, Waterford, and elsewhere. About 1800 he married Miss Tighe of Rosanna, Wicklow. In 1804 his Hymns on Various Passages appeared. While preaching at the age of eighty-five, Kelly had a severe stroke, which resulted in his death on May 14, 1854. Benson ranks Kelly with the best of English hymnists. Many of the 765 hymns are in use. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
297, 390, 393
Ken, Thomas, 1637-1711
Thomas Ken was born in Berkhampstead, England, 1637. His parents died when he was a child, and he was reared in the home of Izaac Walton, who was married to Ken’s elder sister. In 1651 he became a pupil at Winchester College. In 1657 he was made fellow of New College, Oxford; rector of Little Easton, 1663; fellow of Winchester, 1666; rector of Brighstone, the following year; promoted to the rectorship of Woodhay and prebendary of Winchester, 1669. In 1679 he was appointed court preacher for Princess Mary, at The Hague, Holland. He returned to England the following year. In 1685 he was elected bishop of Bath and Wells. He was imprisoned in 1688 because he refused to subscribe to the so-called “Declaration of Indulgence.” He died in Longleat, 1711.
Bishop Ken was a bold and zealous servant of the Lord. He was compelled to leave the court of Princess Mary in Holland because of his fearless opposition to the riotous mode of life maintained there. When Charles II came to Winchester and requested room in the pastor’s house for his concubine, Nell Gwynne, and her company, the bishop bravely refused, and it seems that the king was deeply impressed by his fearless and firm attitude, since he secured his appointment to the bishopric.
Bishop Ken ministered to the king when he lay upon his deathbed. James II called Ken “the most eloquent Protestant preacher.” He was also a warmhearted friend of the poor and needy. According to his own wish he was buried at sunrise, in Frome, below the east chancel window of the church, during the singing of his morning hymn, “Awake, my soul, and with the sun.” After Ken’s death his Hymns for all the Festivities of the Year were published in 1721. In the course of time a large number of centos of Ken’s hymns have been made. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KEN, Thomas (1637-1711), was born in July, 1637, at little Berkhamstead. His mother died when he was but four years old, and his father followed her very shortly. He was brought up by his half-sister Anne, wife of Izaac Walton, author of the Compleat Angler. He was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford. His musical talent expressed itself at this period in his fine voice, on the lute, on the organ, and on the viol. He was ordained in 1662 and held several livings until 1666, when he returned as Fellow to Winchester College. There he prepared for the boys of the school his Manual of Prayers, which contained his three most famous hymns. In 1679 he was created Doctor, and was appointed, by the Duke of York, chaplain to his daughter Princess Mary, the wife of William of Orange, at the Hague. Dismissed for his outspokenness, he returned to England and became chaplain of Charles II. At Whitehall the King once left his court with the words: “I must go hear Ken tell me my faults.” Later when the court visited Winchester, the King wanted Ken to house his mistress, Nell Gwynne. Ken replied: “Not for a kingdom.” In spite of this bold defiance Charles appointed Ken bishop of Bath and Wells. He was consecrated June 29, 1685. In lieu of the customary consecration-dinner Ken gave 100 pounds to charity. Eight days later Ken was called in to minister to the King who had suffered a stroke. For three days the bishop pleaded and prayed and finally got the King to give up “poor Nell” and to make amends to the Queen. But the Duke of York through the Papist priest Huddleston received the King into the fold of the Catholic section of the Church. At the coronation of James II, Ken was the right-hand supporter of the King. After the battle of Sedgmore, by the King’s behest, Ken had to minister to the hardened Duke of Monmouth. After the execution, which Ken attended, he used his influence to stop the wholesale execution of the Dukes followers. He was one of the seven bishops who refused to read, at the Kings command, the “Declaration of Indulgence” or the” Liberty of Conscience to All.” They were speedily imprisoned in the Tower. Later they were all acquitted amid the loud exultation of the people. Shortly after, the King abdicated, and Mary with William of Orange became sole rulers of England. Ken refused to swear allegiance and, after the year of grace allowed had ended, was deprived of his bishopric. The remainder of Ken’s life was uneventful. He was offered his bishopric again upon the accession of Anne but declined it, pleading ill health. In the last years of his life he suffered acutely from various ailments, but uncomplainingly. He died March 19, 1711, and was buried just before sunrise two days later under the chancel-window of the church at Frome, Selwood. He published Hymns and Poems for the Holy Days and Festivals of the Church (this suggested to Keble the idea of his The Christian Year); Anodynes, written in his last years of suffering. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
74, 565, 592
Kennedy, Benjamin Hall, 1804-89
Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D. D., son of the Rev. Rann Kennedy, was born November 6, 1804, in Summer Hill, near Birmingham. He was educated in King Edward’s School, Birmingham, Shrewsbury School, and St. John’s College, Cambridge. Kennedy was the president of the Shrewsbury School from 1836 to 1866 and in 1867 was made professor of Greek at Cambridge. From the latter date he also served as canon of Ely. He was ordained to the ministry in 1829, but served in a pastorate only a short time. Kennedy prepared a number of splendid textbooks for school use. Also several editions of ancient classics, and a volume of University Sermons. Approximately 127 of his hymn-paraphrases were published in his Psalter and Hymnologia Christiana mentioned above. The latter contains also a great many translations from the German, and several original hymns. Kennedy died April 6, 1889. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KENNEDY, Benjamin Hall (1804-1889), was born at Summer Hill, near Birmingham on November 6, 1804. He was educated at King Edward’s School, Shrewsbury School, and St. John’s College, Cambridge. Kennedy was successively Fellow of his College, 1828-1836; Headmaster of Shrewsbury School, 1836-1866; Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge; and Canon of Ely, 1867. Kennedy took holy orders in 1829 and served for a while as Prebendary in the Litchfield Cathedral and Rector of West Felton, Salop. Kennedy’s chief hymnological works are his Psalter in English Verse, 1860, and Hymnologia Christiana, 1863. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
tr. 261, 275
Kentucky Harmony, 1816
Kethe, William, d. c. 1593
KETHE, William (?-c.1593) . The date and place of birth of William Kethe are unknown. He was an exile from Scotland for some time during the Marian persecutions, at Frankfurt in 1555, and at Geneva in 1557. During this exile he contributed twenty-four metrical psalms to the Psalm Book prepared by these English refugees and also helped in the translation of the Bible. In 1561 he was made rector of Childe Okeford, Dorsetshire, and probably remained there until his death. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Kingo, Thomas H., 1634-1703
Thomas Hansen Kingo, born in Slangerup, Denmark, December 15, 1634, was the son of a linen weaver, Hans Thomesøn Kingo. His father came, at an early age, to Denmark from Scotland. Thomas Kingo spent his boyhood years in Slangerup and in Fredriksborg, where he attended the Latin school. In 1654 he passed the examen artium and, after four years’ study at the university, completed his course for the ministry in 1658. After serving for some time as private tutor, he became assistant pastor with Peder Jakobssøn Worm, and remained with him seven years. Worm died in 1668, and in the same year, in August, Kingo became pastor in his native city of Slangerup. By this time he had become known as a poet. In 1665 appeared his Sæbygaards Koklage and subsequently, among others, the famous pastoral poem - Chrysillis, which became very popular. His rank as a poet was thus established even before he appeared as a hymn writer. Therefore, Bishop Wandal, in his preface to Kingo’s first hymn book, called him “our most famous Danish bard.” At Christmas, 1673, his collection of spiritual songs, Aandelig Sjungekors første Part (Spiritual Songs, First Part) appeared. This contained only twenty-one hymns: fourteen morning and evening hymns, and seven of the penitential Psalms of David. While his other poetry followed the style of his times and has but little of present-day interest, his hymns have exceptional vigor and beauty. His morning psalms are like the morning dawn itself, presaging the coming of a new day for Danish poetry. In 1670 he was appointed bishop of the diocese of Fyen, which at that time included also Lolland and Falster. He performed the duties of his office faithfully and did not spare those who were neglectful of their work, while at the same time he proved a friend and helper to all who were conscientious in the performance of their duties. On the 15th of June, 1679, Kingo was made a member of the Danish nobility, and in 1682 he was created doctor of theology.
In 1681 appeared the second part of Aandelig Sjungekor. This contained twenty hymns and sixteen prayers. Of the hymns six deal with confession and sanctification; four with the Lord’s Supper; five with the vanity of the world and the providence of God; three are table hymns; a devotional for travelers; and a hymn for sea-farers. In poetic beauty and force this edition was fully equal to the first part. Kingo now ranked as the first poet of Denmark. He supplied melodies for his hymns, and some hymns were composed directly to secular melodies (folksongs). To justify this latter practice he directs an appeal to “the courteous and fairminded reader,” in which he calls attention to the fact that he thereby desires to make these tuneful and pleasant melodies more heavenly and more devotional: “If you through some pleasing melody enjoy a song of Sodom, how much more ought you not, as a true child of God, to enjoy a song of Zion with the same melody.” King Christian V, under whose directions the ritual of the church was being prepared, desired also to have a new hymn book to take the place of Hans Thomissøn’s, which had been in use since 1569. This hymnal (Thomissøn’s) had been reprinted many times with but few changes up to the middle of the 17th century. From that time, however, it was to a large extent supplanted by various editions, especially by the publications of the firms of J. Moltke, Kr. Cassuben, Kr. Geertsøn, and Dan. Paulli, publishers of Copenhagen. The many editions which appeared contained the hymns of Thomissøn’s Hymnal, but included also a great amount of material borrowed from various devotional writings and poor translations. In many cases the original hymn book made up the smaller part of the editions. Complaints began to be made that almost every congregation, “nay, almost every church-goer carried a different hymn book.” Furthermore, so many misprints and errors appeared that the old, familiar hymns could scarcely be recognized. Hence, when Kingo’s Spiritual Songs appeared, it was only natural that the desire for better hymnaries made itself felt. It was also natural that King Christian V, in casting about for a better hymn collection, turned his thought toward Kingo’s edition. By the royal rescript of March 27, 1683, Kingo was ordered to prepare a new hymn book to contain “the best of the old, familiar hymns and a good number of his own compositions, so that more variety of selection might be possible in the future.” Kingo was further ordered to retain without change the principal hymns sung before the sermon on Sundays. A change in these would not be tolerated except in cases where a new word here or there might actually improve the hymn. Under no circumstance should there be any change in the thought of any of Luther’s hymns. With respect to the arrangement of material, each Sunday was to have its own series of hymns, “not too long, and according to the best and most familiar church melodies.” When this new book had been approved and accepted, Kingo should publish it and possess the sole right of sale, at a popular price, for fifteen years. Churches and schools were to be required to buy it, and the use of any other hymnal was to be strictly forbidden.
Six years later, in 1689, the first part appeared. This was called The Winter Part (from Advent to Easter) and contained 267 hymns. Of these, 136 were by Kingo. It was approved January 25, 1690, and ordered to be introduced in all the churches of the kingdom. The order should take effect upon the first Sunday in Advent of that year. But on the 22nd of February the king cancelled this order and also Kingo’s rights of publication. This was a hard blow to him, but not wholly undeserved, as he had not followed the prescribed method of procedure. The greater number of the hymns, except those by Kingo himself, were not well suited for church use. The task was now given to Søren Jonassøn, dean of Roskilde, but the collection which he delivered in 1693 did not contain a single one of Kingo’s hymns, and for that reason could not be approved. Kingo then sent a petition to the king, and the result was that a commission was appointed to prepare a new hymnal based upon the outline of Kingo’s hymn book. The developments, however, proved disappointing to Kingo. In the new hymnal only 85 of his hymns appeared and in the book of family devotions, prepared at the same time, only 21 hymns from the first part of Spiritual Songs were made use of, and 3 from the second part. On July 21, 1699, the hymn book popularly known as Kingo’s was introduced in all the churches of Denmark. But the adversity which he encountered in connection with the hymnary was not the only incident which cast a gloom over his later years. His successor in office, Bishop Müller, accused Kingo of misappropriation of funds, but after a long and bitter court trial, Kingo was exonerated. The charge of avariciousness, which by some has been placed against him, has never been substantiated. He was recognized as an able and energetic bishop, and his secular poems were praised very highly. But his fame rests mainly on his immortal hymns. A Danish author says of him: “He showed rare genius in moulding language into beautiful rhythm, in unfolding deeply religious thought in clear and striking pictures. New and melodious expressions are born through him. The force of his Alexandrine stanzas, which otherwise might have developed into bombast and empty pathos, has in his hymns been combined with the most elegant grace.” As Grundtvig, the famous hymn writer, once expressed it, “He effected a combination of sublimity and simplicity, a union of splendor and fervent devotion, a powerful and musical play of words and imagery which reminds one of Shakespeare.” But the chief characteristic of his work is to be sought in the manner in which he brought out the true hymn spirit and gave it a deeply religious expression. For this reason he has been called, “Salmisten i det danske kirkekor” (The Psalmist of the Danish Church Choir). Personally he was of a very excitable and even impassionate temperament, and thus would have been able to picture varying moods of stress and trial in the deeply religious soul, but in his hymns he does not often dwell on the subjective moods. His hymns are always tempered by experience, experience supported by and interwoven with the everlasting thoughts and facts of a living Christianity. For that reason his hymns are truly church hymns. Of course, rationalism did not appreciate his Christianity nor his hymns, but when this movement receded, in the 19th century, Kingo again was restored to his place of honor. Bishop Skaar says: “Among the finest hymns in Spiritual Songs must be mentioned the morning and evening hymns with their accompanying prayers, and the table and communion hymns. His hymns based upon the Gospel and epistle lessons, especially, express in striking phrases the thoughts that stir the hearts of Lutheran believers as they behold the life of the Savior upon earth; His lowly birth, suffering, death, resurrection, and ascension. These hymns, which generally end with an appeal to lift the heart unto God in prayer and thanksgiving, have always been cherished by those who have learned to know them.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KINGO, Thomas Hansen (1634-1703), Denmark’s first great hymnist, was born in Slangerup, Denmark, December 15, 1634. His grandfather had emigrated from Scotland to Denmark. Thomas spent his boyhood in Slangerup and Fredriksborg, where he attended the Latin school. He completed his course for the ministry in 1658, and from then until 1668 he served as tutor and assistant pastor, when he became pastor in Slangerup. He possessed unusual poetic gifts and early attracted attention with his secular poetry, especially his popular “Chrysillis.” 1673 marked the first appearance of his religious poetry Spiritual Songs, First Part (Aandelig Sjungekors förste Part), which made a great impression, and he was duly rewarded with the bishopric of the diocese of Fyen. He dedicated his Spiritual Songs to Christian V, and in his dedication address he championed the cause of true Danish hymnody over that of foreign peoples, for the Danes used many hymns of foreign origin in their worship. His hymns have exceptional vigor and beauty, and his value as a poet was gradually being realized. As further reward he was made a member of the Danish nobility in 1679 and created doctor of theology in 1682. The second part of his Aandelig Sjungekors appeared in 1681 and was dedicated to Queen Charlotte. In his dedication address he praised her heroic efforts to master the Danish language before coming to Denmark to be its queen, at the same time referring to certain foreign courtiers who spent thirty years in that country without endeavoring to learn thirty Danish words. Many of his hymns were sung to Danish folk songs, while he supplied melodies for some of them. At this time King Christian V desired to have a new hymnal to replace the one which had been in use since the year 1569. On March 27, 1683, Kingo was ordered to prepare this book, with certain specifications: He should include some of his own hymns, was to make very few changes in the old traditional hymns; and not to alter the meaning of Luther’s hymns in any way. In 1689 the first part of the hymn-book appeared, containing 267 hymns, of which 136 were Kingo’s own. It had been prepared at Kingo’s expense, but was now rejected because he had not followed the prescribed method of procedure. The task was turned over to Sören Jonassön, dean of Roskilde, and his book appeared in 1693, containing not a single one of Kingo’s hymns. This was consequently disapproved, and a commission was appointed under Kingo’s direction to try again. The new hymn-book was approved and introduced into all the churches of Denmark in 1699. Only eighty-five of Kingo’s hymns were contained in the book. However, he never recovered from the indignity and humiliation he had received in connection with these various controversies. He died October 14, 1703. His immortal fame rests on his religious rather than on his secular poetry. His morning hymns are among the finest songs of praise in existence and are truly church-hymns. Of his works Bishop Skaar says: “Among the finest hymns in Spiritual Songs must be mentioned the morning and evening hymns with their accompanying prayers and the table and Communion hymns. His hymns based upon the Gospel and Epistle lessons, especially, express in striking phrases the thoughts that stir the hearts of Lutheran believers as they behold the life of the Savior upon earth: His lowly birth, suffering, death, resurrection, and ascension. These hymns, which generally end with an appeal to lift the heart unto God in prayer and thanksgiving, have always been cherished by those who have learned to know them.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
13, 83, 178, 241, 243, 259, 295, 324, 325, 354, 418, 449, 529, 593, 596, 601, 598
Kinner, Samuel, 1603-68
KINNER, Samuel (1603-1668), the son of Martin Kinner, was born in Bristan in 1603. He practiced medicine for a time in his home town. Later he entered the service of the Duke of Liegnitz-Brieg as Rath and Court Physician. He served in this capacity until his death on August 10, 1668, at Brieg. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Kirbye, George, c. 1560-1634
Kirche-Gesäng, Frankfurt am Main, 1569
Kirchengesang, Berlin, 1566
Kirchengesangbuch, Darmstadt, 1687
Kirchengesangbuch, Strassburg, 1541
Kirchengesenge, Nürnberg, 1531
Kirkpatrick, William James, 1838-1921
William James Kirkpatrick was born February 27, 1838, Duncannon, Pennsylvania. Son of a school teacher and musician, Kirkpatrick published about 50 hymn collections, many in collaboration with John Robson Sweney. He died September 20, 1921, Germantown, Pennsylvania.
Kitchin, George William, 1827-1912
Kitson, Charles Herbert, 1927
Knapp, William, 1698-1768
KNAPP, William (1698-1768), born at Wareham, England, in 1698, probably of German descent. He is said to have been organist of one of the churches of Wareham. He became parish clerk of St. James’s Church, Poole, and held the office for thirty-nine years. He died at Poole in 1768 and was buried September 26, somewhere near the old town wall. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Knecht, Justin Heinrich, 1752-1817
Knecht was a famous German virtuoso organist, violinist, and pianist, besides being well versed in the theory of music and an able composer. He was born in Biberach, Württemberg. After serving two years as music director at Stuttgart, he resigned on account of intrigues, and returned to his native city, where he gave instruction in harmony and composition He died suddenly in 1817. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KNECHT, Justin Heinrich (1752-1817), born September 30, 1752, at Biberach, in Suabia, studied music under Kramer, was organist of the Roman Catholic Church at Biberach, and, afterwards from 1768 to 1771 under Schmidt, director of the music at the gymnasium at Esslingen. He was appointed in 1771 director of the music at Biberach, and, with the exception of the years 1807 and 1808, when he was music director at Stuttgart, remained there till his death, December 1, 1817. He was one of the great organists of his time. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
201, 381, 382, 515
Knudsen, Peder, 1819-63
Kocher, Konrad, 1786-1872
The melody, called “Dix,” from its association with this hymn, has been arranged upon a tune composed by Conrad Kocher for the hymn, “Treuer Heiland, wir sind hier,” in his collection, Stimmen aus dem Reiche Gottes, Stuttgart, 1838. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KOCHER, Konrad (1786-1872), was born at Ditzingen, Württemberg, on December 16, 1786. He intended to enter the teaching profession and at 17 went as a tutor to St. Petersburg. However, the music of Haydn and Mozart made such an impression on him that he decided on a musical career. His friend, Clementi, the great pianist, confirmed him in this decision. After he had studied in St. Petersburg, Kocher returned to Germany and published compositions of such promise that means were found by the publisher Cotta to enable him to proceed to Italy. There his studies, particularly of Palestrina, made him an enthusiast for church choral music. Returning to Germany, Kocher set about to improve church music by popularizing choral singing. From 1827 until 1865 he was organist of the Stiftskirche, Stuttgart. There Kocher founded a school of sacred song which started a movement that spread throughout Württemberg popularizing four-part singing. In 1852 the University of Tübingen gave him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Kocher occupied himself in the revision of various hymn-books and contributed new tunes to them. He published a large collection of chorales under the title Zionsharfe, 1854-1855, and Der Tod Abels, an oratorio, in addition to several operas, sonatas, and other pieces. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
König, Johann Balthasar, 1691-1758
The melody is by Johann Balthazar Koenig (born 1691, in Waltershausen von Gotha, and died 1758, in Frankfurt am Main). In the latter place he served as music director and published in 1738 a large collection of chorals: Deutscher Liederschatz. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KÖNIG, Johann Balthasar (16911758), famous for his collection Harmonischer Liederschatz, 1738, is practically unknown otherwise, and the details of his life are lacking. He was according to the title-page Director Chori Musices at Frankfurt-am-Main in 1738, and in 1767, when the second and enlarged edition of his work appeared, he was Kapellmeister in the same city. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
185, 293, 443, 468
Koren, Ulrik Vilhelm, 1826-1910
REV. U. V. KOREN was intensely interested in church music. He became the leader in the work of compiling the hymn book for the Norwegian Synod. In this edition the above-mentioned hymn was first published in 1874. This happy version of the 100th Psalm of David, together with his translation of “Dies irae, dies illa” (Hymn bk. of Norw. Synod 54), and his revisions of a number of hymns, show his unusual ability to strike the true spirit of the church hymn. They bear witness of his aesthetic taste and marked sense of rhythm and euphony. His hymn paraphrase was entered into G. Jensen’s “Utkast til ny Salmebog” for the Church of Norway, but later omitted by the committee in charge. For the revised edition of the hymn book for the Norwegian Synod, Dr. Koren rewrote several hymns, making them better suited for church use. He was also very musical and keenly interested in the older rhythmic form of church music. At his suggestion was published the Rythmisk Koralbog, which had some influence upon the composition of The Lutheran Hymnary. The English translation of Dr. Koren’s hymn is by Mrs. Harriet R. Spaeth, 1898. The melody is by Erik Christian Hoff (b. 1832). Hoff was an organist in Christiania. Among other works he has published a book of chorals for church use.
Ulrik Vilhelm Koren was born in Bergen, Norway, December 22, 1826. He completed the course at the Cathedral School of Bergen and entered the University of Christiania in 1844. In 1852 he became a candidate of theology and was given a teaching position at Nissen’s latin og real-skole. In 1853 he received a call to a pastorate among some Norwegian congregations of the state of Iowa. He accepted this call and was ordained to the ministry in Norway on the 25th of July, 1853. During the winter the young minister, accompanied by his wife, Else Elisabeth (Hysing), set out upon the voyage across the ocean, to preach the Gospel to their countrymen who had settled on the plains of the far West. They arrived in Little Iowa (later called Washington Prairie) in December, 1853. Rev. U. V. Koren was the first Norwegian pastor to settle west of the Mississippi river. For many years he served the settlements of northeastern Iowa and southeastern Minnesota, a territory now comprising more than 20 parishes. In 1855 he was chosen secretary for the Norwegian Synod; was a member of the church council from 1861; vice-president of the Synod, 1871-1876; president of the Iowa district, 1876-1894; from 1894 until his death, 1910, president of the Norwegian Lutheran Synod of America. On Christmas Day, 1903, he delivered his 50th Christmas sermon before his congregation on Washington Prairie, where he had resided continuously throughout his long term of activity. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
KOREN, Ulrik Vilhelm (1826-1910), was born in Bergen, Norway, on December 22, 1826. He studied at the Cathedral School there and then entered the University of Christiana in 1844. In 1853 he received a call to a pastorate among some Norwegians in Iowa. He was ordained in Norway on July 25, 1853, and the following winter crossed the ocean with his wife, Else Elisabeth, née Hysing. He arrived in Little Iowa (Washington Prairie), Iowa, in December, 1853. Koren was the first Norwegian pastor to settle west of the Mississippi. He labored in northeastern Iowa and southeastern Minnesota. From 1894 until his death in 1910 he served as President of the Norwegian Lutheran Synod of America. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Krauth, Charles Porterfield, 1822-83
C. P. Krauth, D. D., LL. D., was born in Virginia in 1823 and died in 1883. He was a prominent Lutheran theologian, professor, and author, and served for some time as assistant president of Pennsylvania University. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
tr. 143, 265
Kretzmann, Paul Edward, 1883-1965
KRETZMANN, Paul Edward (1883- ), was born in Dearborn County, Indiana, August 24, 1883. He studied at Concordia College, Fort Wayne, and at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, with additional work at the University of Minnesota (M. A. 1913; Ph. D. 1915), La Salle University, Chicago, and Washington University, St. Louis. After his ordination to the Lutheran ministry in 1906, he served as pastor at Shady Bend, Kansas (1905-1907), and Denver, Colo (1907-1912); as professor of science and mathematics at Concordia College, St. Paul, Minnesota (1912-1919); as production manager of Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis (1919-1923); as professor of theology at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis (1923-1946); as pastor at Forest Park, Ill. (1946-1948); and, after a period of retirement, is now president of Orthodox Lutheran Seminary, Minneapolis. He is the author of a large number of theological and educational works, especially Popular Commentary of the Bible (4 volumes). A number of his hymns are included in the American Lutheran Hymnal. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Kurtzweilige Teutsche Lieder, Nürnberg, 1576
Kvamme, Kristen, 1866-1938
KVAMME, Kristen (1866-1938), was born at Lom, Norway, on February 17, 1866. Before he emigrated to America in 1882, he attended the North Gudbrandsdalen Amtsskole. In America he attended St. Ansgar Academy, St. Ansgar, Iowa, Luther College (A. B. 1894), Luther Seminary (C. T. 1899). Before he became a pastor, Kvamme served as a teacher at Luther College for two years. He then held pastorates at New York, New York, Washington, D. C., Salt Lake City, Utah, and Ossian, Iowa. From 1913 until his death Kvamme was the editor of Sunday-school papers. He wrote many Norwegian hymns and translated a few into English. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Landstad, Magnus Brostrup, 1802-80
Magnus Brostrup Landstad was born October 7, 1802, in Maasø, Finmarken, where his father served as pastor at the time. Landstad was accordingly baptized in the “northernmost church in the world.” In Oksnes he spent seven of his childhood years (from 2 till 9). Aside from the solitude, storm, and darkness, which prevailed in that region and oppressed the mind, war. hunger, and high prices often caused the ever increasing family to feel the lack of the very necessities of life. During his childhood occurred also the removal of the family from Oksnes to Vinje, Telemarken, October, 1811. The very next year was also a year of famine, 1812. All over the country the grain froze and the people suffered intensely from the war and high prices. But from Vinje Landstad could also draw brighter memories. He spent his childhood amid natural scenes which, tho harsh enough in the winter, still in the summer were replete with magic inspiration, and these environments warmed his spirit and placed an indelible stamp upon the feelings and imagination of the future hymn writer.
He received his preparatory training from his father, and in 1822 he began his studies at the university. During the following year he took his master’s examination and began the study of theology. When it became difficult for his parents to pay his expenses in Christiania, he was given a position as family tutor in Hadeland. The following year he returned to the university and continued his studies under the teachers Hersleb and Stenersen. In December, 1827, he passed the final examinations with the grade “laudabilis.” His graduation sermon was preached upon the text in 1 Cor. 11: 28-29. In November, 1828, he was appointed resident vicar of Gausdal. The following year he was married to Vilhelmine Lassen, a daughter of Albert Lassen, the dean of Grau, in Hadeland. In 1834 he was appointed to the pastorate of Kviteseid, and in 1839 he became his father’s successor as pastor of Seljord. In Kviteseid his income was very meagre, and sickness in his family further increased his difficulties. He was stricken with an attack of pneumonia and could not take over his father’s charge until 1840. In Seljord he labored for eight years under the most trying circumstances.
In Landstad’s Sange og Digte there are two memorial poems which date from his first year as a student. These poems were written as a tribute to two of his brothers who passed away. Aside from the inner promptings in his own soul, Landstad’s interest for hymn writing was awakened through an interesting incident of which he himself relates the following: “Once during my student days I happened to walk by a house where an auction sale of books was in progress. The doors were open and I entered without having in mind to make any purchase. Just then a package of old books was offered. I made a bid of four cents, the deal was made, and I walked home with my package. It contained two volumes in leather binding. One was Freuden-Spiegel des ewigen Lebens, by Philipp Nicolai. On the last few pages of this book four of Nicolai’s hymns were printed. The other book was Arrebo’s Hexaemeron, The Glorious and Mighty Works of the Creation Day. In that manner two splendid hymn collections, one German and one Danish-Norwegian, unexpectedly came into my possession. I was not acquainted with either of these works before. Nicolai’s hymns appealed to me very strongly, and I at once made an attempt to translate them. ‘Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme’ was rendered into Norwegian in essentially the same form as it now has in the hymnal, ‘Zions Vægter hæver Røsten.’ The second hymn, ‘Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern,’ was given a free rendering. This hymn, ‘Af Høiheden oprunden er,’ was already used by our church through Kingo’s Hymnary. Later on, therefore, when it became my duty to prepare the hymn book for the church, I limited my work upon this hymn to a few minor changes in Kingo’s version. My experience with these hymn collections, I believe, gave me the first impetus in the direction of hymn writing. Furthermore, it gave me a deeper insight into the life and spirit of the old church hymns.”
Landstad’s first original hymn dates from his sojourn in Gausdal, “Ser jeg mig i Verden om” (Landst. 399). During his pastorate in Kviteseid he composed three hymns for the Reformation festival of 1837. Two of these were sung in his church on November 5 of that year: “O Kristenhed! i Nattens Stund” (Landst. 556) and “Herrens Raad ei Støv udgrunder.” But, if Landstad had already in his student days gained an “insight into the life and spirit of the old church hymns,” this deepened more and more as he began to delve into the works of the hymn writers of the Church. Landstad’s Hjertesuk (Prayers) are the direct fruit of these studies. In 1841, shortly after moving to Seljord, he published Hjertesuk til hver Dag i Ugen, Morgen og Aften, saa vel som ved andre Anledninger (Prayers for Morning and Evening, and Other Occasions). This work has later been printed in a great many editions and has proved a blessing to many. Ten of these Prayers are written by Landstad. Among these may be mentioned the following: “Slukt er Dagens lyse Flammer” (Landst. 616); “Jeg ligger her i Vaande” (Landst. Norw. ed. only, 621). The rest of these prayers were rewritten by Landstad and given better form. Two years later seven of his hymns appeared in the periodical Nor. Five of these are original. There is a marked foreign element, however, in many of these hymns. It is apparent that Landstad at the time borrowed from the Danish poets. He had not yet fully acquired the homelike and warmhearted tone which characterizes his later hymns. During his stay in Kviteseid he began to gather folk-songs. He completed the collection in Seljord and published it in 1853 under the title: Norske Folkeviser. This received much favorable mention from P. A. Munch and others. His work in the field of folk-song had great influence upon his development as a writer of hymns. Thus he learned to appreciate the force of that unaffected poetry which, by means of direct and simple words, is often capable of making the most profound impression upon the soul. He called forth from his harp deep-sounding and forceful tones, that struck a sympathetic chord in the hearts of his people. Through the hymns which he published the attention of the church officials was directed to Landstad as the logical man for the work of preparing a new hymn book for the Church of Norway. In 1848 the church department of the government requested him to undertake this task.
He declined at first, because his pastorate in Seljord claimed so much of his time. It left him no opportunity for study and research in the vast field of hymnological literature which would necessarily require his attention. He therefore applied for the pastorate of Fredrikshald and was appointed in 1849. The church department had not, however, given up the plan for a new hymn book for Norway, especially since W. A. Wexels, a “prominent follower of Grundtvig,” in 1849, also issued a hymnal which he desired should be considered as a “proposal for a new hymn book, submitted to the judgment of fellow-Christians.” In 1852 Landstad was again called upon to undertake the task of preparing the new hymnal. The same year he was granted an assistant in his pastorate, and on October 7th a royal resolution was passed, delegating to Landstad the work of preparing “an outline for a new church hymn book essentially along the lines of his previous plan.” In 1855 Landstad published Martin Luthers aandelige Sange, oversatte og med Anmerkninger ledsagede. Julesalmer, saadanne som de agtes foreslaaet til kirkelig Brug, followed in 1856; and in the spring of 1861 appeared the long looked for Kirke-Salmebog, et Udkast.
Landstad’s book was reviewed by Morgenbladet, one of the leading papers of Norway, in the issues of August and September, 1861. It expressed sincere appreciation of the hymnal, and voiced the hope that the church people of Norway would rally around it. But the article also expressed the conviction that the omission of certain hymns, and especially that the form of language employed in the book would prove a serious handicap in the way of its adoption by the congregations. This review gave the occasion for Landstad’s reply, Om Salmebogen, first printed in Morgenbladet and later issued in book form. A few excerpts will suffice to show the trend of his defence: “If we are to get a new hymnal, we must meet on the common ground of faith in love. We must not cling to our preconceived notions; not let ourselves be influenced too strongly by our own tastes! nor by our own desires, as though we were the only ones entitled to a hearing. We must concede that others may also have well-founded demands that ought to be considered. Again, it is the common observation that differences of opinion arise over minor matters; but we must always hold fast to this principle: ‘not to swerve a hair’s breadth at any time from the true ground of faith’ (at vi ei fra Troens Grund et Haarsbred viger nogen Stund). Even those who speak from the assurance of conviction and authority may often be grossly in error. A church hymnal has the lofty mission of serving as the medium of confession, of prayer, and of praise, during the service in the sanctuary, as well as in the home. We must offer something which will serve the congregation, something which will satisfy their longings and desires, and which will fulfil the lofty missions of such a publication. If we would simply take from the existing material all that which seems serviceable and useful and without further ado include it in our hymnal, then a book could very easily be manufactured. The very fact that the material is so vast in volume, makes our task difficult, because all of it is not pure gold.” Concerning the qualifications of the one who is to prepare a hymnal, Landstad writes: “An intimate knowledge of hymn literature, poetic vision, and knowledge of language, especially the mother tongue. We must above all demand that our hymns possess the elements of poetic diction and true song. We must consider the historical and churchly elements, and the orthodox objectivity, which shows respect for church tradition and which appreciates the purity, clearness, and force of confession. But the sickly subjectivity, which ‘rests’ in the varying moods of pious feelings and godly longings, and yet does not possess any of the boldness and power of true faith— such as we find in Luther’s and Kingo’s hymns— this type of church hymn must be excluded. Finally, we must also emphasize the aesthetic feature. Art must be made to serve the Church, to glorify the name of God, and to edify the congregation of worshipers. But it must always be remembered that art itself is to be the servant and not the master.” This very scientific and earnest defence gained many friends for Landstad’s work on the hymnal, but it did not, however, win universal sympathy for the new forms of expression which he had introduced into the language of the hymns. During the following years, Landstad thoroughly revised his hymn book. In the course of this work about 30 of the more recent hymns were omitted and an equal number of the older hymns were included. Numerous changes in expression, however, were incorporated. In 1865 the revised work was submitted to a committee consisting of Bishop A. Grimelund, Prof. M. J. Monrad, Prof. R. T. Nissen, the pastor (later bishop) Jørgen Moe, and the associate pastor (later bishop) J. N. Skaar. The committee gave their opinion in 1867, and considered the matter again in 1868. Finally, on October 16, 1869, the book was authorized for use at the public services in all places where the congregations would so decide. By the close of the year 1870 Landstad’s Hymnary had been introduced into 648 of the 923 pastorates in Norway.
On April 23, 1859, Landstad was appointed to the charge of Sandherred and labored there until 1876, when he sought release from his duties. He was granted a pension of 4,000 crowns. We quote the following estimate written on this occasion: “In consideration of Landstad’s long and honorable service in the ministry, and in recognition of his great merits as a writer of hymns and as editor of the hymn book, we have recommended for him a larger pension than any other pastor hitherto has received. The committee heartily endorses this and recommends: That the proposed pension for M. B. Landstad be granted.” This pension was granted unanimously and without debate by the Storting in 1877. The golden wedding on May 6, 1879, developed into a grand celebration in honor of the aged hymn writer and his estimable wife. Innumerable presents, telegrams, and flowers were showered upon them from all parts of the country, and by all classes of people. Landstad died October 9, 1880, in Christiania.
We quote the following from Skaar’s Norse History of Hymns: “Landstad’s work in folk-song gave a decidedly Norwegian ring to his hymns, but he did not succeed in liberating himself entirely from his Danish patterns.… His hymns are marked by a popular tone, but they also possess pure warmth and earnestness and a churchly spirit.… In a masterly manner he restored the old hymns. Although his hymns, in poetic flight, cannot rank with Kingo’s, still in depth of feeling, in truth and sobriety of sentiment, in simplicity, in clear and open confession of that which is most precious to the heart of the Christian, in these Landstad’s hymns rank equal to, if not above, the best in the possession of our Church.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LANDSTAD, Magnus Brostrup (1802-1880), was born in Maaso, Finmarken, Norway, on October 7, 1802, where his father was pastor at the time. His youth was spent in Oknes and Vinje, where the family suffered because of the solitude, storm, darkness, and famine. Landstad received his preparatory training from his father. In 1822 he began his studies at the university, took his maste’rs examination the following year, and began the study of theology. For financial reasons he was obliged to take a position as family tutor in Hadeland to continue his studies at Christiana. After a year Landstad returned to the university and studied under the teachers Hersleb and Stenersen. In December, 1827, he passed the final examination with the grade “Laudabilis.” In November, 1828, he was appointed resident vicar of Gausdal. The following year he married Vilhelmine Lassen, a daughter of Albert Lassen, the dean of Grau in Hadeland. In 1834 Landstad became pastor at Kviteseid and in 1839 succeeded his father as pastor of Seljord. He did not start duties there, however, until 1840, because of an attack of pneumonia. Here he labored for eight trying years. Landstad’s interest in hymn-writing was awakened during his student-days through an accidental purchase of two books, Freuden-Spiegel des ewigen Lebens by Philipp Nicolai (q. v.) and Arrebo’s Hexaemeron, The Glorious and Mighty Works of the Creation Day (q. v.), at an auction sale. His first original hymn was written during his sojourn in Gausdal. During his pastorate in Kviteseid Landstad composed three hymns for the Reformation festival in 1837. At this time he also began to collect folk-songs, a work that had a great influence upon his hymn-writing. Through the hymns which he published he came to the attention of the church officials and was asked to prepare a new hymn-book for the Church of Norway. He declined the offer as his pastorate in Seljord claimed so much of his time. He therefore applied for the pastorate of Fredrikshald and was appointed to it in 1849. An assistant in this pastorate was granted him, and on October 7, 1852, a royal resolution was passed, delegating to Landstad the work of preparing an outline for a new church-book essentially along the lines of his previous plan. In 1861 the long-looked-for Kirke-Salmobog et Udkast appeared. An article in one of the leading newspapers expressed sincere appreciation of the hymnal but also expressed the conviction that the omission of certain hymns, and especially that the form of language employed in the book, would prove a serious handicap in the way of its adoption by the congregations. Landstad gave a very scientific and earnest defense of his work, and while it gained many friends, it did not win universal sympathy for the new forms of expression which he had introduced into the language of the hymns. During the following years Landstad thoroughly revised his hymn-book. On October 16, 1869, Landstad’s Hymnary, was authorized for use at public services in all places where the congregation would so decide. By the close of the year 1870 Landstad’s Hymnary had been introduced into 648 of the 923 pastorates in Norway. In April, 1859, Landstad was appointed to the charge of Sanherred and labored there until 1876 when he was granted a release from duties with a pension. His golden wedding anniversary in 1879 developed into a grand celebration in honor of the hymn-writer and his estimable wife. Landstad died in Christiana, October 9, 1880. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
111, 189, 200, 493, 457, 495, 525
34, 38, 112, 181, 343, 527, 537, 571
8, 11, 34, 68, 96, 108, 110, 112, 131, 135, 159, 223, 266, 294, 310, 314, 342, 352, 397, 436, 571
Laurenti, Laurentius, 1660-1722
Laurentius Laurenti was born in Husum, Slesvig, the 8th of June, 1660. He studied at Kiel University, and became cantor in 1684 and director of music at the Cathedral of Bremen. He died in Bremen May 29, 1722. He was very much influenced by the Pietistic movement. His 148 hymns were published in Evangelia Melodica, mentioned above His hymns, says Söderberg, give evidence of a Christian judgment which has maintained the earlier Lutheran spiritual soundness and firmness. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LAURENTI, Laurentius (1660-1722), was the son of Herr Lorenz (or Laurenti), a burgess of Husum, Schleswig, and was born at Husum on June 8, 1660. In 1681 Laurenti entered the University of Rostock and stayed there for a year and a half. He then attended the University of Kiel, where he studied music. In 1684 Laurenti was appointed cantor and director of the music at the Lutheran Cathedral Church at Bremen. He is one of the best hymn-writers of the Pietistic school. His hymns are founded on the Gospels for Sundays and festivals and make application from the leading thoughts to the Christian’s life. They are characterized by noble simplicity, Scripturalness, and fervor. His 148 hymns were published in Evangelia Melodica, 1700. He died May 29, 1722. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Laurinus, Laurentius, 1573-1655
Laurentius Laurinus was born in 1577; assistant master (rektor), 1603, and later head master of Söderköping; pastor of Häradshammar, 1609; lost his eyesight in his latter days, and died in 1656. Johann Åstrøm, pastor and doctor of theology; b. 1767; d. 1844.—William Maccall (b. Scotland, 1812; d. 1888) published many translations of Danish and Swedish hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LeCroy, Anne K., b. 1930 (revision)
Lee, Olav, 1859-1943
Leeson, Jane Eliza, 1807-82
JANE ELIZABETH LEESON was born 1807 in England (according to some, 1815). She published several hymnals, especially for children: Infant Hymnings, Hymns and Scenes of Childhood, 1842; The Child’s Book of Ballads, 1849; Songs of Christian Chivalry, 1848; Paraphrases and Hymns for Congregational Singing, 1853.—Miss Leeson died in 1882. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LEESON, Jane Eliza (1807-1882). In spite of the fact that she is included in almost every collection of hymn-writers biographies in the English language, very little is known about this English woman and her private life, except the dates of her birth in 1807 and death in 1882. She was for years a well-known figure in the Catholic Apostolic Church, contributing to its hymn-book nine hymns and translations. Later in life she entered the Roman communion. Some of her hymns were produced as “prophetical utterances,” supposedly under the prompting of the Holy Spirit, at public services. A former member of the same communion. who heard her produce one such hymn at a service in Bishopsgate Church, records that “it was delivered slowly with short pauses between the verses, a pause three times as long as any one would ordinarily make in reading. I have not known any one with a similar gift; but I have heard of an improvisatore who far surpassed Miss Leeson. She only exercised her gift at long intervals and could choose her own time and her own subject. He improvised very frequently, much more rapidly, and on any subject chosen for him by others.” She possessed rare gifts in writing for children and many such hymns flowed from her prolific pen. Her published collections of children’s hymns date from 1842 with Infant Hymnings and Hymns and Scenes of Childhood; The Child’s Book of Ballads, 1849; Songs of Christian Chivalry, 1848; Paraphrases and Hymns for Congregational Singing, most of which were rewritten from the Scottish Translations and Paraphrases of 1781, in 1853. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Lemke, August, 1820-1913
LEMKE, August (1820-1913). Very little is definitely known about this man. He came to America from Germany and became, in 1847, schoolteacher, organist, and choir director for Trinity Lutheran Church, Milwaukee, where he served until 1851. Then he resigned his position and entered a secular occupation. There are no further traces of him in the records of Trinity Church. It was during his term of service at this church that Lemke composed his tune for Weissel’s great Advent hymn. He died November 1, 1913. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Lettermann, Henry L., b. 1932
Lieder für Kleinkinder-Schulen, Kaiserwerth, 1842
Lindeman, Ludvig Mathias, 1812-87
Ludvig Mathias Lindeman was born November 28, 1812, in Trondhjem. His first music teacher was his father, Ole Andreas Lindeman, organist at Our Lady’s Church of that city. Having taken eksamen artium and commenced his theological studies, he was appointed to the position of organist in Our Savior’s Church, Christiania. In this work he continued until his death, May 23, 1887. From 1849 and on he also served as professor at the theological seminary. In 1871 he published Koralbog for den norske kirke. Through this work as well as through all his work in general, Lindeman contributed greatly to the cause of good church song among the Norwegian people. It was stated at his funeral that he was the person who had taught the Norwegian people to sing. He certainly gave impetus to congregational singing through his many and varied choral melodies. His melodies are to a large degree original. Some have been recast from older tunes. Lindeman’s hymn tunes breathe a spirit of deep religious fervor, refreshing vigor, and partake of the character of the folk-tune. The latter explains to some extent their popularity (Bishop Dr. A. Chr. Bang). Lindeman’s life and work will be treated more fully in a later section. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LINDEMAN, Ludvig Mathias (1812-1887), was born November 28, 1812, in Trondhjém, Norway. His father, Ole Andreas Lindeman, organist at Our Lady’s Church of that city, was his first music teacher. After completing his liberal arts studies and beginning the study of theology, he was appointed organist at Our Savior’s Church in Christiana, where he remained until his death on May 23, 1887. From 1849 on he also served as professor at the theological seminary. In 1871 he published his Koralbog for den NorskeKirke. Lindeman contributed greatly to the cause of good church music among the Scandinavians. It was said at his funeral that he had taught the Norwegian people to sing. Though some of his melodies are based on older chorale tunes, many are original. They breathe a spirit of deep piety and often partake of the character of the folk-song. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
4, 112, 189, 251, 348, 399, 405, 430, 449, 479, 493, 499, 563, 580, 583
setting: Lindeman, Ludvig Mathias, 1812-87
setting: 95, 112, 211, 215, 258, 264, 295, 340, 412, 437, 462, 463, 585
Lindemann, Johann, 1549-c. 1631
Little Children’s Book, Philadelphia, 1885, st. 1-2
Littledale, Richard Frederick, 1833-90
Richard Frederick Littledale was born September 14, 1833, in Dublin. He was educated at Bective House Seminary and Trinity College, Dublin.
During his student years he earned several honor titles for scholarship. In 1862 he received the degree of LL. D., and also the D. C. L. from Oxford. Having been ordained in 1856, he became curate of St. Matthew’s, Thorpe Hamlet, Norwich, and the following year was moved to St. Mary the Virgin, Soho, London, where he served until 1861, when he was compelled to resign on account of failing health. From this time until his death he was engaged in literary pursuits. He wrote several theological, historical, liturgical, and hymnological works, as well as hymns, litanies, and translations of a large number of hymns from the Danish, Swedish, Greek, Latin, and Italian. His original hymns and translations rank very high. In 1864 he published The Priest’s Prayer Book with Hymns, and in 1867 the People’s Hymnal. Littledale died January 11, 1890. The melody (O Jesu, for din Pine) is taken from Kingo’s Gradual, 1699. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Lockhart, Charles, 1745-1815
The melody (Carlisle) was composed by Charles Lockhart, an English musician, b. 1745, d. 1815.
Some authorities find the date of the melody in 1769; others in 1791. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Löhner, Johann, 1645-1705
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-82
LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth (1807-1892), born at Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807, was educated at Bowdoin College. After four years of study in Europe, he became professor at Bowdoin, where he remained until 1854. His reputation as a poet is well known. He died on October 3, 1892. A bust was placed in his honor in Westminster Abbey. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Löwenstern, Matthäus Apelles von, 1594-1648
Matthæus Apelles von Löwenstern was born April 20, 1594, in Neustadt, Silesia, where his father was a saddlemaker. The son became famous as a talented musician, and in 1625 was given a position with Duke Heinrich Wenzel. Six years later he was appointed royal councillor and chamberlain. Later he entered the service of Ferdinand III and was by him raised to the nobility. Finally he became secretary of state under Duke Karl Friedrich of Münsterberg. He died April 11, 1648, in Breslau. In all he wrote about 30 hymns, several of which have been translated into English and other languages. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LÖWENSTERN, Matthäus Apelles von (1594-1648), was born at Neustadt, Silesia, the son of a saddler, on April 20, 1594. In 1625 he was appointed music director and treasurer at Bernstadt by Duke Heinrich Wenzel of Münsterberg. The following year he received the appointment of director of the princely school at Bernstadt. In 1631 he was made Rath and Secretary and also Director of Finance. Löwenstern then served as Rath for the Emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III. The latter ennobled him. His last office was Staatsrath at Öls to Duke Carl Friedrich of Münsterberg. He died at Breslau, April 11, 1648. Löwenstern’s thirty hymns were written in imitation of antique verse forms and on the mottoes of the princes under whom he had served. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Loy, Matthias, 1828-1915
Matthias Loy, D. D., was born March 17, 1828, in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. He was educated for the ministry at the theological seminary of the Ohio Synod in Columbus, Ohio. He served first as pastor at Delaware, Ohio (1849-65), and later as editor of The Lutheran Standard. In 1865 he was made professor of theology at the Evangelical Lutheran Seminary, Columbus, Ohio, and in 1880 was elected president of Capital University, of which the seminary is one department. For a number of years he served as president of the Ohio Synod. Loy died in 1915. Twenty-one of his original hymns and a like number of his translations have been embodied in The Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal of the Ohio Synod. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LOY, Matthias (1828-1915), was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg, on March 17, 1828. He was the fourth of seven children. The mother of the family, who was a Lutheran, gave the children a Christian education. In 1834, when Matthias was six years old, the family moved to Hogestown. When Matthias was fourteen, he was sent as an apprentice to Baab and Hummel, printers of Harrisburg. Here he worked for six years, all the while attending school. Through Mr. Hummel he came to the attention of the Rev. C. W. Schäffer (q. v.), pastor at Harrisburg, who suggested to him the vocation of the Lutheran ministry. Meanwhile he studied Latin and Greek under the tutorship of the principal of the Harrisburg Academy. Later he attended this Academy as a regular student. By this time he had made up his mind to become a minister. He left for Circleville, Ohio, to print a German semimonthly paper for the United Brethren Publishing House. Arriving in Circleville in the autumn of 1847, Loy met the Lutheran minister there, who suggested that he leave immediately for Columbus and there enter the Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio. Loy secured a release from his contract with the publishing house, and with the financial assistance of the Lutheran pastor, he left for Columbus. During his student days Loy was a reader of the Lutheraner, edited by C. F. W. Walther. Upon his graduation in 1849 Loy was called to a congregation in Delaware, Ohio. In 1860 he was elected President of the Joint Synod of Ohio and four years later was appointed editor of the Lutheran Standard. Then after sixteen years in the ministry, Loy was called to the professorship of theology at Capital University in March, 1865. In 1878 he resigned as President of the Ohio Synod; he was succeeded by Prof. Wm. F. Lehmann, who had been Vice-president. At this time Loy returned the call to the English professorship of theology at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. In 1880, when Prof. Lehmann died, Loy succeeded him both as President of the synod (which office he held until 1892) and as President of Capital University. In 1881 Loy started the Columbus Theological Magazine. He also fostered the formation of the Synodical Conference. However, at the Ohio Synod meeting at Wheeling in 1881, the synod withdrew from the Synodical Conference. He wrote the following books: The Doctrine of Justification, 1868; Sermons on the Gospels, 1888; Christian Church, 1896; The Story of My Life, 1905. He retired as professor emeritus in 1902 and died in 1915. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
5, 233, 245, 309, 492
tr. 24, 100, 221, 290, 394, 417, 427, 491, 551
Ludämilia Elisabeth, Countess of Schwarzburg, 1640-72
Ludämilia Elisabeth of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, a daughter of Count Ludwig Gunther, was born April 7, 1640. When she was six years old, her father died. But her mother, Æmilie Antonia, tenderly cared for bringing her up together with her orphaned relative, Emilie Juliane, who had been adopted into the family. The highest aim of the mother was to instruct them in the Word of God and in the Confessions of the Lutheran Church and otherwise to give them all good and useful training. She secured a pious and learned theologian as their teacher. But Ludämilia’s development was particularly influenced by Ahasverus Fritsch, who later became the tutor of her brother Albert Anton. Fritsch was a highly cultured man, a man of integrity, filled with a living love for the Word of God and the confessions of his church, and a great lover of spiritual song. After the death of her mother, Ludämilia was betrothed, 1672, to her cousin, Christian Wilhelm, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. But she did not become his wife. The following year the district was visited by an epidemic of measles, and Ludämilia’s oldest sister was stricken and died after a short illness. Ludämilia, who had tended her together with one of the younger sisters, was infected by the same disease and died a few weeks later. As soon as she was stricken she went to bed and said: “Here I lay me down in Jesus’ name; may He do unto me according to His good pleasure.” And when she had partaken of Holy Communion, she exclaimed: “My God, come what may, life or death; my will is the will of Jesus; I am a child of God. Nothing, nothing shall separate me from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus. God has blessed me now in Holy Communion as before in my Baptism.” And later: “God be praised that I was brought up in the true Christian, Lutheran religion, and that I now do not doubt, but firmly, yea, firmly dare to believe that I by the blood of Jesus am an heir to eternal salvation and that I shall stand before my God in heaven, the moment my body and soul are separated on earth.” During her last night, she was continually praying, and when morning came she sang hymns and prayed: “Lord God, my Father, what Thou hast created; Lord, the Son of God, what Thou hast redeemed; Lord God, the Holy Ghost, what Thou hast sanctified, this I commend into Thy divine hands…
Be near me when I’m dying,
O show Thy cross to me; and to my succor flying,
Come, Lord, and set me free:
These eyes, new faith receiving,
From Jesus shall not move;
For he who dies believing
Dies safely, through Thy love.”
(Landst. 333, 8; Luth. Hym. 315, 8.)
Thereupon she bade her loved ones farewell, expressing her joy and delight in the glory which awaited her, and recited John 3:16: “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” “Father, in Thy hands I commend my spirit!” She expired at noon, March 12, 1672. Ludämilia Elisabeth wrote over 200 hymns. This hymn was translated by H. A. Brorson, and has been called “The principal gem in Elisabeth’s crown of evangelical hymns.” In addition to this hymn, Landstad also has included her popular hymn “Sørg, o kjære Fader, du” (Landst. 525). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LUDÄMILIA ELISABETH, Countess of Schwarzburg (1640-1672), the second daughter of Count Ludwig Günther I of Schwarzburg, Rudolstadt, was born on April 7,1640, at the Castle of Heidecksburg near Rudolstadt and was educated there, along with her cousin Ämilie Juliana (q. v.). In 1665 she went with her mother to the dowager Castle of Friedensburg near Leutenberg; but after her mother’“s death in 1670, she returned to Rudolstadt, where on December 20, 1671, she was formally betrothed to Count Christian Wilhelm of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. At that time measles were raging in that district. Her sister Sophie Juliane was stricken and died February 14, 1672. By attending on her, Ludämilia and her youngest sister, Christiane Magdelene, caught the infection, and both died at Rudolstadt on March 12, 1672. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Lundeen, Joel W., b. 1918
Luther, Martin, 1483-1546
Martin Luther (1483-1546), German reformer, was born in Eisleben, the son of Hans and Margarete Ziegler (Lindemann?) Luther. His parents were miners. In 1484 they removed to Mansfeld, where the father became a prominent citizen. The training in the parental home was very strict and the son was kept rigidly at his studies. He received his early education in Mansfeld, Magdeburg, and Eisenach. In 1501 he became a student at Erfurt. His father decided that he should study law, but Luther, suffering from anguish of conscience, entered the Augustinian cloister at Erfurt in 1501. In 1507 he was ordained. While in the cloister he showed great zeal both in acts of penitence and in the study of the Holy Scriptures, which he here learned to know for the first time. But he suffered still from remorse of conscience. For this the vicar-general Staupitz gave him great comfort. Staupitz brought Luther to the attention of Elector Friedrich the Wise, who procured for him a professorship at the university of Wittenberg in 1508.
In 1511 Luther went on his famous journey to Rome. In 1512 he was created doctor of theology. His religious views began to ripen and take form as he studied the Letter to the Romans, the Psalms, Augustine, Bernhard, and the German mystics. Righteousness by faith now became the central doctrine of his theology.
Then came his public declaration against the selling of indulgences. In the 95 theses, nailed on the church door at Wittenberg, October 31, 1517, he challenged the pope’s authority to remit punishment except that which he had himself ordered. This caused a great sensation; Luther had had the courage to come out openly and express an opinion which already had been nourished by many. The pope tried in vain to silence Luther, first through Cardinal Cajetan (Augsburg, 1518), then through his chamberlain Miltitz (Altenburg, 1519). At the disputation with Eck (Leipzig, 1519) it appeared that Luther’s views on the authority of the pope were entirely different from that held by the Catholic Church.
In the meantime Luther was supported by his colleagues, especially Melanchthon, by the elector and many of the humanists, as Hutten and Crotus, and by the common people. In 1520 the main Reformation writings appeared: To the Christian Nobility, emphasizing the universal priesthood of all believers; The Babylonian Captivity with its new conception of the sacraments; and Christian Liberty. On January 3, 1520, Luther was placed under the ban of the Church. In 1521 he was cited to appear before the Diet of Worms, where he was asked to retract all his writings. Upon his determined refusal to do this (April 18), he was declared (May 25) also under the ban of the empire. The elector had, however, prepared a place of safety for Luther at Wartburg, where he found time and peace to translate the Bible for his people. March 7, 1522, the fanaticism of Carlstadt drew him again to Wittenberg. He now began to organize the work of the church and the order of service. During this period he also wrote many of his powerful hymns.
In the following year the humanists (Erasmus), the fanaticists (Carlstadt, Münzer), and the peasants (Peasants’ War, 1524-1525) deserted the cause of Luther. Through his action during the war Luther strengthened the position of the rulers. On June 15, 1525, he married a former nun, Katharina von Bora. During the following year he visited the congregations in Saxony, for whom he wrote the Small Catechism. During the years 1526-1530 there arose the controversy with the Swiss reformers, especially with Zwingli, who so far disagreed with the Lutherans on the doctrine of the Lord’s Supper that Luther at the conference at Marburg, 1529, declared openly, “Ye are of a different spirit from us.” During the Diet of Augsburg, 1530, Luther followed the proceedings from his retreat at Coburg. Thus it came to pass that, while the Augsburg Confession contains the fundamental ideas of Luther, it was given its form under the painstaking hand of Melanchthon.
Luther’s polemics did not grow milder as he ripened in years. Even in 1545 he wrote about the Papacy at Rome, Founded by the Devil. His many letters to his wife and children prove that his domestic life was very happy. During his later years he grieved over the fact that the Gospel of Christ bore so little fruit.
His Table Talks show him to have been a prince of entertainers, both along the line of mirth and in serious conversation. Death overtook him upon a journey which he made in an attempt to reconcile the counts of Mansfeld. He died in his home town of Eisleben. He was buried in the castle church of Wittenberg.
Luther was a spiritual giant, great in the fearless fight which he waged, and great in true conservatism. Personally he was the incarnation of the strength of the German people. He was a master of language, both written and spoken. His translation of the Bible alone would have established his fame. He was exceptionally earnest and sincere. The desire of his heart caused him to enter the cloister; but the constant faith of his heart led him forth again from the cloister into active life, and this experience of his heart, based upon the testimony of Scripture, he made the firm foundation upon which he took his stand in defiance of all human onslaughts. His strong realistic tendency might at times verge on coarseness, but we see in it simply a frank protest against vain sentimentalism, against affectedness and vacillation. The quadri-centennial of Luther’s birth was celebrated in 1883 by Lutheran churches over the whole world.
1. Eines neues Lied wir heben an.
2. Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort.
Hold oppe, Gud, hos os dit Ord. Landst. 29.
Lord, keep us steadfast in Thy word. L. H. 138.
3. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod.
4. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g’mein.
(Nu fryde sig hver kristen Mand.)
Nu kjære menige Kristenhed. Landst. 9.
Dear Christians, one and all rejoice. L. H. 526.
BASED ON LATIN OR GERMAN ORIGINALS
5. Christ lag in Todesbanden.
Den Herre Krist i Dødens Baand. Landst. 342.
Christ Jesus lay in death’s strong bands.
L. H. 330.
6. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns.
7. Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich.
HYMNS REWRITTEN, SOME OF THEM DIRECT TRANSLATIONS, OTHERS ENLARGED FROM LATIN
8. Christum wir sollen loben schon.
Saa langt som Himlens Hvælving naar.
From east to west, from shore to shore.
9. Der Du bist Drei in Einigkeit.
O hellige Treenighed. Landst. 85.
10. Gelobet seist Du, Jesus Christ.
Du være lovet, Jesu Krist. Landst. 133.
O Jesus Christ, all praise to Thee. L. H. 184.
11. Komm, Gott Schöpfer, heiliger Geist.
Kom, Helligaand, med Skabermagt.
Come, Holy Ghost, Creator blest. L. H. 355.
12. Komm, heiliger Geist, Herr Gott.
Kom, Hellige Aand, Herre Gud. Landst. 429.
Come. Holy Spirit, God and Lord. L. H. 375.
13. Mitten wir im Leben sind.
Midt i Livet ere vi. Landst. 223.
Though in midst of life we be. L. H. 240.
14. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland.
Kom, du Folke-Frelser sand. Landst. 141.
Come, Thou Savior of our race. L. H. 186.
15. Was fürchtst du, Feind Herodes sehr.
16. Herr Gott, dich loben wir.
O store Gud, vi love dig. Landst. 10.
Thee God we praise, Thy name we bless.
HYMNS BASED ON OLD GERMAN ORIGINALS
17. Gott der Vater, wohn uns bei.
18. Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet.
Gud være lovet evig nu og priset. Landst. 69.
May God be praised henceforth. L. H. 156.
19. Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist.
Nu bede vi den Helligaand. Landst. 3.
O Holy Ghost, to Thee we pray. L. H. 39.
HYMNS BASED ON PSALMS
20. Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein. Psalm
O Gud, av Himlen se hertil. Landst. 497.
Look down, O Lord, from heaven behold.
L. H. 424.
21. Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir. Psalm 130.
Af Dybsens Nød jeg raabe maa. Landst. 273.
Out of the depths I cry to Thee. L. H. 273.
22. Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott. Psalm 46.
Vor Gud han er saa fast en Borg. Landst. 266.
A mighty fortress is our God. L. H. 270.
23. Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl.
24. Es wolt uns Gott genädig sein. Psalm 67.
Nu er os Gud miskundelig. Landst. 28.
May God bestow on us His grace. L. H. 29.
25. Wär’ Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit. Psalm 124.
Var Gud ei med os denne Tid. Landst. 555.
Had God not come, may Israel say. L. H. 527.
26. Wohl dem der in Gottes Furcht steht.
HYMNS BASED ON OTHER SCRIPTURE PASSAGES
27. Jesaia, dem Propheten, das geschah. Is. 6:1-4.
28. Mit Fried’ und Freud’ ich fahr dahin.
Luke 2 :29-32.
Med Fred og Glæde far jeg hen. Landst. 162.
29. Sie ist mir lieb die werthe Magd. Rev. 12 :1-6.
30. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her.
Luke 2 :8-12.
Fra Himlen høit jeg kommer her. Landst. 129.
From heaven above to earth I come. L. H. 181.
31. Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar.
Luke 2 :10-11.
Fra Himlen kommer Englehær. Landst. 145.
HYMNS BASED ON PARTS OF THE CATECHISM
32. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam.
Kristus kom selv til Jordans Flod. Landst. 260.
33. Dies sind die heiligen Zehn Gebot.
34. Mensch, wilst du leben seliglich.
35. Wir glauben all’ an einen Gott.
Vi tro og trøste paa en Gud. Landst. 12.
We all believe in one true God. L. H. 71.
36. Vater unser im Himmelreich.
O Fader vor i Himmerig. Landst. 14.
Our Father, Thou in heaven above. L. H. 359.
It is difficult, not to say impossible, to classify Luther’s hymns. In the foregoing list, prepared by a Lutheran hymnologist, only four hymns are mentioned as original with Luther. In reality many more deserve to be listed as original, when we consider how the spirit of Luther has adapted and arranged the material of many hymns and impressed the stamp of his personality upon them. The best church hymns as well as our sermons are associated with passages from the Holy Scriptures. But just the same the hymn or sermon may be original to an eminent degree and at the same time be truly Biblical. “A mighty fortress is our God,” is based upon the 46th Psalm, but employs very few of the words or expressions of the Scripture text. Yet this hymn must surely be said to be both Biblical and at the same time be Luther’s own, original, and characteristic poetry. James Mearns has listed the following as original with Luther:
Christ lag in Todesbanden (partly based on an older Easter hymn).
Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam (based on Mark 1 :9-11).
Ein neues Lied wir heben an.
Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort.
Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod.
Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g’mein.
Vom Himmel hoch da kam ich her (Luke 2 :10-16).
Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar.
Luther loved the Church and language of his fathers. He loved the hymns and the music of the Church and often expressed his esteem and even admiration for the great poets and musicians of the Church. He loved the hymns of the ancient Church and praised especially the use of the Latin language for its fine tone and musical cadence, and expressed the wish that the youth of his time might be trained in the language of the ancient Church. For this purpose he retained many of the four part choir songs with Latin texts. He did not consider himself proficient enough to render these glorious hymns into his mother tongue, still less did he feel that he could create anything new to take their place. He considered the Church as a large garden where, through lack of care, many kinds of weeds are threatening to choke the good seed, and to destroy the tender shoots and the fragrant flowers that are left. But he loved this old garden, and like a wise, cautious, and conservative gardener, he hoped to pluck out the tares, and plant the good seed in places where the weeds before had made the ground unfruitful, then to cleanse, water, and care for it. In other words, as a true child of the Church, he wished to preserve, ennoble, and enrich the better portion of the heritage received through his Church.
He realized fully the importance of providing suitable hymns in the language of the people. He had possibly made various attempts, but he felt that he himself was no poet; others more talented would have to supply this need of the Church. But at this time an event took place which gave impetus to Lutheran church song. In the Netherlands the Lutherans had gained a great following, but they were hard pressed by their enemies. Especially was this the case with the monks of the Augustinian cloister of Antwerp, where all who would not retract their Lutheran convictions were cast into prison.
Among these prisoners were the two youths Heinrich Voes and Johannes Esch (Esche). Together with the prior of the abbey they were brought to Wierwoerde, near Brussels, and brought to trial before the inquisition of the Dominicans. They remained true to their confession and were placed in the prison at Bruges. July 1, 1523, Heinrich Voes and Johannes Esch were condemned to die. When their gowns had been removed the inquisitor announced that he still had power to set them free if they would recant. But they declared stoutly that they rejoiced to pass out of this world and to be with Christ. Having been clad, one in a black, the other in a yellow cloak, they were led to the stake. The four “confessors” burst into tears as they saw the courage and cheerfulness of the youths, but the two martyrs said to them that they should rather weep over their own sin and because righteousness was being mocked. Surrounded by flames they recited the Apostles’ Creed and sang the famous Latin hymn “Te Deum Laudamus.” (Thee God we praise, Thy name we bless. Landst. 10; L. H. 1). Soon they perished in the flames.
The inquisition had done its work, but its first Lutheran victims had entered into their glory. The third victim, the prior of the abbey, was choked to death in the prison cell shortly afterwards. The tidings of their martyr death spread from city to city, until it also reached Luther and the reformers. Luther sent a letter of consolation to the congregations of Holland, Brabant, and Flanders. It has been said that the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church. These youthful martyrs faced death with the song of praise upon their lips —the most glorious hymn of the ancient Church. From this “Te Deum” thousands of hymns were born, and like carrier doves they brought the glad tidings of the Gospel to many lands. From the ashes of the two Dutch youth there arose, Phoenix-like, a new “Te Deum,” the new song of the Reformation. As Heinrich Voes and Johannes Esch passed “into Paradise with songs,” a fountain of song was opened in the Lutheran Church, and especially in Luther’s own bosom. He now wrote his festival hymn commemorating the death of the two Lutheran martyrs, “Ein neues Lied wir heben an.” The melody (L. H. 29) for this hymn was composed by Johann Walther, who was a member of Duke Frederick’s choir. The same year it was published in pamphlet form. The following year it appeared in the Erfurt Enchiridion. It is not strictly a church hymn, but it sings of springtime and announces that the summer is drawing nigh.
Luther wrote to his friends and encouraged them to write hymns. In a letter to Spalatin, the secretary and chaplain to the elector, he writes: “Following the example of the prophets and the church fathers, I wish to compose hymns for our people; spiritual songs, that the Word of God through song may live among the members of our Church. I search everywhere for poets. Since you possess ease of expression and taste in choice of words, having been trained in both these respects, I beg you to take a hand in this and to rewrite one of the Psalms of David after the pattern which I herewith submit to you. Avoid fanciful expressions. Let the words come in the most natural and direct manner, which may be clearly understood, but let the thought be rendered exactly and in harmony with the Psalm. Of course, having grasped the thought of the sacred writer, one must have the liberty to depart from the literal words of the Psalm and to choose words which best convey the inspired burden of the text.”
Luther sent a similar request to Johann Doelzig, and suggested a few of the Psalms for this work. He adds that he has already worked over the 130th Psalm in this manner (Aus tiefer Noth). Spalatin and Doelzig did not fulfil Luther’s wish. But Paul Speratus composed three hymns and Justus Jonas one. There was springtime and seedtime in Luther’s heart. The fountains of song began to flow in rich measure. A fruitful year was at hand. “Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g’mein” appeared shortly after “Ein neues Lied,” and, before the close of the year 1524, 24 of Luther’s hymns, together with the contributions from his helpers, were printed in many small hymnals, which flew over the countries carrying with them the seeds of life. And thus Lutheran hymn singing, which was destined to become such a powerful factor in the Church of Christ, had begun its triumphant course, filled with the fulness and the power of the Gospel of Christ. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LUTHER, Martin (1483-1546), the Great Reformer. His life is too well known to require more than the mention of some important details concerning his work as a hymn-writer. He was born at Eisleben, November 10, 1483, son of the miner Hans Luther and Margarete, née Ziegler. After receiving his education at Magdeburg, Eisenach, and Erfurt (M. A. 1505), he entered the Augustinian Convent at Erfurt and was ordained priest in 1507. He began to lecture at the University of Wittenberg in 1508 and was made Doctor of Theology in 1512. His nailing the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, October 31, 1517, is called the beginning of the Reformation. He was summoned to Rome to answer for his theses, but his Elector would not let him go. His The Babylonian Captivity of the Church brought the papal condemnation upon him, and at the Diet of Worms, 1521, he was placed under the Imperial ban. His friends took him to the Wartburg, where he spent a year and began the translation of the Bible (completed by 1534), besides writing other works. He returned to Wittenberg in 1522 to calm the disturbed minds there and in 1523 began the writing of hymns, which led to the publication of the Achtliederbuch in 1524, the first Lutheran hymnal. This so-called Achtliederbuch contained eight hymns. Four were by Luther, three by Paul Speratus, and one by an unknown author (probably Justus Jonas). This is the tiny spring from which sprang the mighty stream of Protestant hymnody. In 1524 there appeared the Erfurt Enchiridion or Handbook of Spiritual Songs and Psalms, containing 25 hymns, 18 by Luther. In the same year Johann Walther (q. v.), musician, together with Luther issued Spiritual Hymn-booklet, for choir-singing for the young in five parts, with 32 German hymns, 24 by Luther - two thirds of all that he created for congregational hymnsinging. In time Luther added 12 more hymns, including From Heaven Above and A Mighty Fortress. Luther’s method was to versify psalms, to translate and adapt Latin hymns, to improve and spiritualize folk-songs, and to write original hymns. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
As a tribute to Luther as hymn-writer Merle D’Aubigne says: “The Church was no longer composed of priests and monks; it now was the congregation of believers. All were to take part in worship, and the chanting of the clergy was to be succeeded by the psalmody of the people. Luther, accordingly, in translating the psalms, thought of adapting them to be sung by the Church. Thus a taste for music was diffused throughout the nation. From Luther’s time the people sang; the Bible inspired their songs. Poetry received the same impulse. In celebrating the praises of God, the people could not confine themselves to mere translations of ancient anthems. The souls of Luther and of several of his contemporaries, elevated by their faith to thoughts the most sublime, excited to enthusiasm by the struggles and dangers by which the Church at its birth was unceasingly threatened, inspired by the poetic genius of the Old Testament and by the faith of the New, ere long gave vent to their feelings in hymns in which all that is most heavenly in poetry and music was combined and blended. . . . Other children of the Reformation followed his footsteps; hymns were multiplied; they spread rapidly among the people and powerfully contributed to rouse it from sleep.” [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
2, 18, 33, 38, 40, 45, 48, 123, 124, 136, 154, 247, 250, 251, 327, 343, 378, 383, 396, 440, 452, 488, 490, 527, 556, 584, 589, 591
40, 45, 123, 124, 250, 251, 383, 405, 452, 493, 499, 530, 573, 583
Lutheran Book of Worship, 1978
tr. 57, 210, 398
setting: 188, 415
Lutheran Hymnal, Australia, 1973
tr. 45, 118
Lutheran Worship, St. Louis, 1982
Lutherische Hand-büchlein, Altenburg, 1648
Lyra Davidica, 1708
Lyra Davidica, 1708
Lyte, Henry Francis, 1793-1847
Henry Francis Lyte, son of Captain Thomas Lyte, was born June 1, 1793, in Ednam, near Kelso. He was educated in the Royal School of Emiskillen and Trinity College, Dublin, where he was graduated in 1814. He won great distinction at the university, receiving three prizes for English poems. At first he planned to study medicine, but gave this up for the study of theology and was ordained in 1815. He served near Wexford and later at Marazion in Cornwall. So far he had not been imbued with Christian earnestness to any great extent, but in 1818 the sickness and death of one of his friends and colleagues brought a radical change in his spiritual life. When he was to try to bring comfort to his dying brother clergyman he began to feel how sorely he himself needed to enter into a closer communion with his Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, and the two friends began a period of intense devotion and prayer. He writes about the death of his friend: “He died in willing resignation under the will of God, and with the firm conviction that, although he had sinned much, still there was one who by His suffering and death had atoned for all his transgressions.” Lyte adds that, at the deathbed of this friend, he himself went through a great spiritual awakening, receiving a wholly different view of life a new vision of the requirements of Christianity. In all earnestness he now took up the study of the Word of God, and his preaching became quite different from what it had been. He showed a spirit of great selfsacrifice in caring for the family of his departed friend. A fervent desire to serve his Lord and Savior and to help his fellowmen in spiritual and bodily need, became from now on the guiding force in his life. He had a very weak constitution but when his friends begged him to seek relief, he replied that it was better to wear one’s self out in the service of the Lord than to rust away. In 1819 he was transferred to Lymington, where he wrote a collection of poems, Tales on the Lord’s Prayer. In 1823 he was called as perpetual curate of Lower Brixham, Devon, and among these sturdy people his labors were richly blessed, until, stricken with consumption of the lungs, in the fall of 1847, he had to leave for Nizza, Italy, where he died November 20th, the same year.
Among Lyte’s poetic works may be mentioned: 1. Poems, Chiefly Religious, 1833, and an enlarged edition, 1845; 2. The Spirit of the Psalms, 1834; enlarged edition, 1836. After his death Miscellaneous Poems, 1868, and Remains, 1850, were published. Lyte’s hymns are noted for their beautiful diction, a deeply religious and pious tone. Even in his hymns which breathe the spirit of the rejoicings of faith there is an undercurrent of sadness and grief. Many of his hymns are very popular, and are used by all denominations throughout the English-speaking world. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
LYTE, Henry Francis (1793-1847), was born June 1, 1793, at Edham, Ireland. Although he had intended to enter the medical profession, Lyte was led into the Gospel ministry and was ordained in 1815. He graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, where three times he won the prize for the best English poem. Early in his ministry he experienced a change of heart. He had been called to minister to a dying clergyman friend whose faith was clouded, and together they found peace in Christ. Of the change that came to him he wrote: “I was greatly affected by the whole matter and brought to look at life and its issue with a different eye than before and I began to study my Bible and preach in another manner than I had previously done.” He cared for the children of his friend and, although he was always poor, carried the burden cheerfully. He was jostled from one curacy to another until he settled in 1823 at Lower Brixham, a fishing village. The parish was new and consisted of fisherfolk. He was delicate and sensitive; his health was undermined, and he sought rest and restoration on the Continent. He died at Nice, November 20, 1847. His last words were “Peace; joy!” He published Tales on the Lords Prayer in Verse, 1826; Poems Chiefly Religious, 1833; The Spirit of the Psalms, 1834. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
67, 218, 424, 561, 582
Maccall, William, 1812-88
William Maccall (b. Scotland, 1812; d. 1888) published many translations of Danish and Swedish hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Mackay, Margaret, 1802-87
MARGARET MACKAY’s hymn, “Asleep in Jesus l blessed sleep,” appeared for the first time in The Amethyst; or Christian’s Annual, 1832 (W. Oliphant), Edinburgh. It contained six stanzas with the following introduction: “Sleeping in Jesus. By Mrs. Mackay of Hedgefield. This simple but expressive sentence is inscribed on a tombstone in a rural burying ground in Devonshire, and gave rise to the following verses.” It was included in Mrs. Mackay’s Thoughts Redeemed, 1854, where she relates that the monument bearing the inscription, “Sleeping in Jesus,” is found in the cemetery near Pennycross Chapel and adds: “Distant only a few miles from a bustling and crowded seaport town, reached through a succession of those lovely green lanes for which Devonshire is so remarkable, the quiet aspect of Pennycross comes soothingly over the mind. ‘sleeping in Jesus’ seems in keeping with all around.” (Melody [Wareham], see No. 475.)
Margaret Mackay, born 1802, was the only daughter of Captain Robert Mackay, of Hedgefield, Inverness. In 1820 she was married to Major William Mackay, later lieutenant colonel and prominent officer. He died in 1845. Mrs. Mackay died on the fifth of January, 1887, in Cheltenham. In 1854 she published her Thoughts Redeemed, or Lays of Leisure Hours, containing 72 original hymns and poems together with a few prose writings. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MACKAY, Margaret (1802-1887), was born in 1802. She was the only daughter of Captain Robert Mackay, of Hedgefield, Inverness. She was married to Major William Mackay of the 68th Light Infantry in 1820. Mrs. Mackay died at Cheltenham, January 5, 1887. In addition to various prose works she published Thoughts Redeemed, or Lays of Leisure Hours, 1854, which contained 72 original hymns and poems. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Madson, Juul B., b. 1920
Madson, Norman Arthur, 1886-1962
MADSON, Norman Arthur (1886- ), son of Andrew J. Madson and Mary, née Hoverson, was born November 16, 1886, at Manitowoc, Wisconsin. He was educated at Wittenberg, Wisconsin, Academy; Luther College, Decorah, Iowa; Chicago University; and Luther Seminary, Hamline, Minnesota. Ordained November 14, 1915, he was traveling missionary of the Norwegian Synod on the Iron Range in northern Minnesota, 1915-1916; teacher at Luther College, 1916-1918; U. S. Army chaplain, 1918-1919; pastor at Bode, Iowa, 1919-1925, and Princeton, Minnesota, 1925-1946; and professor at Bethany Lutheran College, Mankato, Minnesota, 1946 . He was married August 31, 1918, to Elsie Haakenson. He has served in the following church offices: Secretary, Bethany Lutheran College Association, 1927-1929, President of Norwegian Synod, 1935 (relieved because of ill health), Editor, Lutheran Sentinel, 1927-1929; Member of Committee on Church Union, 1938-1957; Member of Inter-synodical Committee on Hymnology and Liturgics, 1929 ; Member of Missionary Board of Synodical Conference, 1946-1950. He wrote Ved Betlehemskrybben, a book of festival sermons; Evening Bells at Bethany, I and II, Preaching to Preachers; and the monograph The Norwegian Synod and the Christian Day-School. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
tr. 127, 178
Magdeburg, Joachim, c. 1525-after 1583
Joachim Magdeburg was born in Gardelegen, Altmark, about 1525. From 1544 he studied at the University of Wittenberg, and in 1546 he was made rector of Schöningen. Later he served as pastor in various places, but met with many difficulties. Repeatedly he was compelled to discontinue his work, partly because of conflicts with the Catholics, and partly on account of differences as to doctrine. He remained for a while in Erfurt. He was then appointed pastor of Efferding, in Austria, where he remained until 1583, when he had to give up his work there also. The story of his later life is not known. Magdeburg was a close friend and follower of the talented and warmhearted Lutheran theologian and historian, Flacius. During the violent and acrimonious doctrinal controversies which centered about his leader, he also made many bitter enemies.—The English translation is by B. H. Kennedy, 1863 (see No. 217). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MAGDEBURG, Joachim (c. 1525 - c. 1583), was born at Gardelegen in the Altmark. He matriculated at the University of Wittenberg in 1544. Two years later he became Rector in Schöningen, Brunswick, and pastor in Dannenberg, and in 1549 at Salzwedel, Altmark. In this year he allied himself with Flacius in an attack upon the Catholic Church. He refused to adopt the ceremonies of Rome prescribed in the Interim and was banished in 1552. By gaining the friendship of Superintendent Joh. Aepinus, he became in 1552 the diaconus of St. Peter’s in Hamburg. In collaboration with Flacius, Magdeburg published the well-known historical work The Magdeburg Centuries. Shortly thereafter he finally succeeded in finding a permanent position. He was made chaplain under the Austrian Commander at Raab in Hungary. In 1571 he was at Erfurt and in 1581 at Efferding in Austria. He published Christliche und tröstliche Tischgesenge, 1572. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Maker, Frederick Charles, 1844-1927
The melody (St. Christopher) is by F. C. Maker, composer of songs, born 1844, in England. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Mann, A. H.
MANN, Arthur Henry (1850-1929), was born on May 16, 1850, in Norwich, England, and started his musical career as a chorister in the cathedral there. He later served as organist at St. Peter’s, Wolverhampton, Tettenhall Parish Church, Beverley Minster, and King’s College, Cambridge. He was also organist at the University of Cambridge and music master of Leys School in Cambridge. He received his degree of Bachelor of Music from Oxford in 1874, and in 1882 his degree of Doctor of Music. He wrote a great deal for voice and organ and was musical editor of The Church of England Hymnal. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mant, Richard, 1776-1848
Richard Mant was born February 12, 1776, in Southampton (the birthplace of Watts). His father was the rector of All Saints’ Church, and was noted for his learning. Richard was educated at Winchester School and at Trinity College, Oxford, where he took examinations in 1801. At first he served as assistant to his father. In 1810 he became vicar of Coggeshall, Essex, and in 1813 was appointed assistant to the archbishop of Canterbury. He served in London from 1816 until 1820, when he was appointed bishop of Killaloe, Ireland. Three years later he removed to the bishopric of Dawn and Connor. In 1842 he was promoted to the position of bishop of Dromore. He died November 2, 1848. Bishop Mant was a prolific writer. He wrote a great number of hymns which are to be found scattered throughout his works. Among the collections published may be mentioned The Book of Psalms in an English Metrical Version, 1824; Ancient Hymns from the Roman Breviary. As a supplement to the latter, Original Hymns were published in 1837. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MANT, Richard (1776-1848), was born on February 12, 1776, at Southampton, the son of the Master of the grammar school there. He attended Winchester and Trinity, Oxford, and received his B. A. in 1797 and his M. A. in 1799. After being ordained Mant first assisted his father as curate and subsequently served as Vicar of Coggeshall, Essex, 1810; Domestic Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1813; Rector of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, London, 1816, and East Horsley, 1818; Bishop of Killaloe, 1820, of Down and Connor, 1823, and of Dromore, 1842. Mant was also Bampton Lecturer in 1811. He is known chiefly through his translations from the Latin. Among his noteworthy publications are his Metrical Version of the Psalms, 1824, Holy-days of the Church, 1828-1831, and Ancient Hymns, 1837. He died November 2, 1848. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
March, Daniel, 1816-1909
THIS missionary hymn was written by the Rev. Daniel March, who was born in America, July 21, 1816. He was a member of the Congregational Church. A number of his hymns have been included in various hymnaries. He published several works, among which the best known is Night Scenes in the Bible. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MARCH, Daniel (1816-1909), was born at Millburg, Massachusetts, July 21, 1816. After graduating from Yale, he was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1845. Later he joined the Congregational Church. By 1868 Doctor March was pastor in Philadelphia. It was during this pastorate that he wrote his well-known hymn “Hark! the Voice of Jesus Calling.” He published Night Scenes in the Bible, Our Fathers House, Home Life in the Bible, From Dark to Dawn. He died on March 2, 1909, at Woburn, Massachusetts, at the very old age of ninety-three years. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Marriot, John, 1780-1825
John Marriott, son of Rev. R. Marriott, rector of Cottesbach, England, was born in 1780. He first attended school at Rugby and continued his studies at Christ Church College, Oxford, where he won a prize in one of the contests. Having completed his studies at Oxford, he served for a time as private tutor and house chaplain for the Duke of Buccleuch. Later, on the recommendation of the duke, he became rector of Church Lawford of Warwickshire. He remained in this position until his death. On account of his wife’s ill health, however, he had to change his place of residence to Devonshire. From that place he served the congregations at Exeter and Broadclyst. He died March 31, 1825.
Marriott published a volume of sermons in 1818. Another volume of his sermons was published by his sons in 1838. He did not publish any of his hymns. Some were printed while he lived, but without his permission. Marriott was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott, who dedicated some of his works to Marriott, in memory of their friend*** [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MARRIOTT, John (1780-1825), was born at Cottesbach, near Lutterworth, and was educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford. He tutored for two years in the family of the Duke of Bucoleuch, from whom he received the Rectory of Church Buccleuch in Warwickshire. He also served as curate of St. Lawrence and other parishes in Exeter, and of Broadclyst, near Exeter. Marriott published a volume of Sermons in 1818, but his hymns have never appeared in book form. He died March 31, 1825. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Marzolf, Dennis William, b. 1958, st. 2
Mason, Arthur James, 1851-1928
MASON, Arthur James (1851-?), son of G. W. Mason, was born on May 4, 1851, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He became a Fellow of his college in 1873 and Assistant Tutor in 1874. Mason was ordained in the latter year and was Honorary Canon and Canon Missioner of Truro and Vicar of All Hallows, Barking, London. In 1835 Mason became Professor at Cambridge and Canon of Canterbury and in 1903 Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge. A number of his hymns appeared in Hymns Ancient and Modern, particularly his translations from the Latin. He published The Faith of the Gospel. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mason, Lowell, 1792-1872
Lowell Mason, doctor of music, was born January 8, 1792, at Meafield, Massachusetts, and resided at Savannah, Georgia, from 1811 to 1827, when he settled in Boston. Dr. Mason was early devoted to hymnody and was a great reformer and improver of its standards in the United States. He was associated with G. J. Webb in promoting the cause of music in Boston, and accomplished much for musical education and culture. He died at Orange, New Jersey, August 11, 1872. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MASON, Lowell (1792-1872), son of Johnson Mason and Caty, née Hartshorn, was born at Medfield, Massachusetts, January 8, 1792. When not much more than a boy, his fondness and aptitude for music placed him in the position of leader of a church choir in his native town. From Massachusetts he removed to Savannah, where he became clerk in a bank. Here he conducted the music of the large Presbyterian church and compiled his first collection of church music with the help of his teacher. Obtaining leave of absence from the bank, he bent his steps to Philadelphia and offered the copyright of his book to the publishers, provided he might receive a few copies for his own use. They all declined the offer; and when the young enthusiast went to Boston, he fared no better. He was about to return to Savannah, when he met George K. Jackson, who desired to examine his work. This gentleman expressed great satisfaction with it, and, with Lowell Mason’s permission, showed the manuscript to the Board of Management of the Boston Händel and Haydn Society, of which he was a member. That society published it, giving the author an interest in the work. It became immensely popular, and in the next thirty years ran through seventeen large editions. This success decided Lowell Mason’s course of life. He remained in Savannah five years more and then took up his abode at Boston, became organist of Dr. Lyman Beecher’s church, and commenced the work of lecturing and publishing church music in earnest. In 1832 he established the Boston Academy of Music, and in 1838 he obtained power to teach in all the schools of Boston. At the same time he founded periodical conventions of music teachers, which have proved very useful and are now established in many parts of the States. He also published a large number of manuals and collections, which sold well and produced for him a handsome fortune. His degree of Doctor of Music the first of its kind conferred by an American college was granted by New York University in 1835. He died at Orange, New Jersey, August 11, 1872. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
184, 195, 308, 420
Massie, Richard, 1800-87
Richard Massie, born 1800, in Chester, England. In 1854 he published in London Martin Luther’s Spiritual Songs. His Lyra Domestica, London, 1860 and 1864, contains Spitta’s and other German hymns in English translation. He also translated many German hymns for Mercer’s Church Psalter and Hymn Book. Massie died March 11, 1887. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MASSIE, Richard (1800-1887), was born on June 18, 1800, at Chester, England, the son of the Rev. R. Massie and Hester, née Townshend. His early days were spent at Chester, where his father was rector of St. Brid’es. On January 7, 1834, he married Mary Ann Hughes of Blache Hall, Chester. She died seven years later. He translated many of the hymns of Spitta, Gerhardt, and Luther with artistic skill. His Lyra Domestica, 1860, Vol. I, contains translations of the first series of Spitta’s Psalter und Harfe. Volume II of 1864 contains Spitta’s second series and has an appendix of translations from other German authors. He died March 11, 1887. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
tr. 18, 75, 154, 293, 336, 338, 343, 378, 421, 517, 531, 591
Mathesius, Johann, 1504-65
The author of this hymn is not known. It has been accredited to Johann Mathesius, a disciple and friend of Luther, born June 24, 1504, and died as pastor of Joachimsthal, Bohemia, October 8, 1565. He suffered a stroke while in the pulpit preaching upon the Gospel Lesson for the 16th Sunday after Trinity. But the hymn is not found in any of his writings. Our English translation is by Dr. Henry Mills (1786-1867), a Presbyterian professor at Auburn Theological Seminary, New York. The melody is taken from the Catechismus-Gesangbüchlein durch David Walderum, Hamburg, 1598. Others have claimed as its source an Eisleben Gesangbuch of the same year. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Mattes, John Caspar, 1876-1948
MATTES, John Caspar (1876-1948), was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, on November 8, 1876. He attended Lafayette College (A.B. 1898; A.M. 1901), was graduated from the Philadelphia Lutheran Theological Seminary in 1901, and received his D. D. from Mühlenberg College in 1925. Mattes was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in 1901 and served as pastor of the Church of the Savior, Trenton, New Jersey, 1901-1915; Holy Trinity, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1915-1927; and St. John’s Church, Scranton, 1927-1938. Mattes was appointed Professor of Theology at Wartburg Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa, in 1939, served twice as President of the Wilkes-Barre Conference of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, and was active on a number of committees and boards of the Lutheran Church. Mattes is the translator of six hymns in the Common Service Book of the United Lutheran Church in America. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Maude, Mary Fawler (Hooper), 1819-1913
Mary Fowler Maude, daughter of George Henry Hooper, of Stanmore, Middlesex, was born October 25, 1819, in London. In 1841 she was married to the preacher Joseph Maude, vicar of Chirk near Ruabon, and hon. canon for St. Asaph. Her hymns were published in the above mentioned Twelve Letters on Confirmation, 1848, and in Memorials of Past Years, 1852. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MAUDE, Mary Fawler, née Hooper (1819-1913), the daughter of George Henry Hooper, was born in Stanmore, Middlesex, England, and was married to the Rev. Joseph Maude in 1841. She became well known as a poet and hymn-writer. She published Twelve Letters on Confirmation in 1848 and Memorials of Past Years in 1852 (privately printed). She died at Overton in 1913. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Maurus, Rhabanus, 776-856
Rabanus Maurus was born in Mainz (?) 776. He attended school in the Cloister of Fulda and was ordained to the office of deacon in 801. He also continued his studies under the famous teacher, Alcuin of Tours, who gave him the name Maurus. In 804 he became the head of the school at Fulda in connection with the cloister of that place. In 822 he was made abbot. And in the year 847 he was appointed archbishop of Mainz, at that time the principal bishopric of Germany. De died in 856. Rabanus Maurus was a very prolific writer. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
RHABANUS MAURUS (776-856), a great eccleslastic and teacher of the ninth century, was born at Mainz of a noble family. He began his education early at Fulda and entered the Benedictine order. In 801 he received orders of a deacon, and the following year he was sent to continue his studies at Tours, under Alcuin, from whom he received his surname Maurus, after St. Maur, the disciple of Benedict. In 803 he became head of the school at Fulda, which flourished greatly under his leadership. In 814 he was ordained priest, in 822 he was chosen Abbot of Fulda and performed his duties with much ability until 842, when he resigned and withdrew to the cloister of St. Peter to devote himself to literature. In 847 he became Archbishop of Mainz. He died at Winkel on the Rhine, February 4, 856. Maurus took an active part in opposing Gottschalk and his theories about Predestination and also the doctrines of Paschasius Radbertus with regard to the Eucharist. His voluminous writings upon diverse subjects include a Latin-German glossary on the Bible, a sort of encyclopedia De Universo Libri XXII commentaries on the Old and New Testaments and poems. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
McComb, William, 1793-c. 1870
McCOMB, William (1793 - c. 1870), was born in Coleraine County, Londonderry, Ireland, in 1793. He was a layman and for many years a bookseller in Belfast, Ireland. He published The Dirge of O’Neill, 1816, and The School of the Sabbath, 1822. These, together with smaller pieces, were collected and published in 1864 under the title The Poetical Works of William McComb. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
McDougall, Alan C., 1895-1964
Mealy, M. W., b. 1922
Medley, Samuel, 1738-99
Samuel Medley was born June 23, 1738, at Cheshunt, Herts, where his father kept a school. He received a good education, but entered the Royal Navy. Having been severely wounded in a battle with the French fleet, in 1759, he was obliged to retire from active service. A sermon by Dr. Watts, read to him about this time, led to his conversion. He joined the Baptist Church in Eagle Street, London, then under the care of Dr. Gifford, and shortly afterwards opened a school, which for several years he conducted with great success. Having begun to preach, he received, in 1767, a call to become pastor of the Baptist Church at Watford. Thence, in 1772, he removed to Byrom Street, Liverpool, where he gathered a large congregation, and for 27 years was remarkably popular and useful. After a long and painful illness he died July 17, 1799.
Most of Medley’s hymns were first printed on leaflets or in magazines. Later they appeared in several small volumes. Medley’s hymns have been very popular in his own denomination. Their charm consists less in their poetry than in the warmth and occasional pathos with which they give expression to Christian experience (W. R. Stevenson in Julian’s Dictionary). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MEDLEY, Samuel (1738-1799), was born on June 23, 1738, at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, where his father kept a school. He received a good education. He was apprenticed to an oil-dealer, but, dissatisfied with the business, entered the Royal Navy. Medley had to retire from active service after having been wounded severely in a battle with the French fleet off Port Lagos, 1759. He was taken to the home of his grandfather and was converted by the latter’s prayers and by a sermon of Dr. Watts, which was read to him. He became a member of the Baptist Church in Eagle Street, London, under Dr. Gifford, and shortly afterwards opened a school which he conducted for several years with success. Medley started preaching and received a call in 1767 to become pastor of the Baptist Church at Watford. In 1772 he became pastor in Liverpool, where he labored very successfully for twenty-seven years until his death on July 17, 1799. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Melanchthon, Philipp, 1497-1560
MELANCHTHON, Philipp (Schwarzerd) (1497-1560), was born February 16, 1497, at Bretten, near Carlsruhe, and was the son of Georg Schwarzert. He attended the Latin School at Pforzheim from 1507 to 1509, and in October of the latter year entered the University of Heidelberg. Johann Reuchlin called him Melanchthon, the Greek form of his name, meaning Black Earth. He was transferred to Tübingen on account of his extreme youth and there received his M. A. in 1514 and remained until 1518, as a private lecturer in philosophy. In that year he was appointed professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg, and, after an inauspicious beginning, gradually gained the respect and esteem of both faculty and students. After the Leipzig Disputation in 1519 he was made a Bachelor of the Bible and a lecturer on theology, at times addressing from 500 to 1,500 students. Martin Luther was Melanchthon’s spiritual father and through the early period of Reformation the two worked side by side, the former continually strengthening and supporting the latter. Melanchthon’s Loci and his framing of the Augsburg Confession have proved monumental contributions to Lutheranism even though he altered his position somewhat after Luther’s death. Melanchthon’s poems and hymns were written in Latin and had very little influence on the development of German hymnody. They were edited completely by C. G. Bretschneider at Halle, 1842, and a number have appeared in translation in Protestant hymnals. He died April 19, 1560. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Melodia Sacra, 1815
Mendelssohn, Felix, 1809-47
MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY, Jacob Ludwig Felix (1809-1847), was born on February 3, 1809, at Hamburg, the son of a Jewish banker. His grandfather, Moses Mendelssohn, was a famous Jewish philosopher. He was baptized in the Lutheran Church at Berlin. As a boy he showed extraordinary musical talents, appearing as a concert pianist at the age of 10 and writing several compositions before he was much past 12 years. He was only 17 when he wrote the overture to A Midsummer Nights Dream. He was responsible for renewed interest in the study and performance of Bach in his time, and he himself excelled as a composer of sacred music, particularly in the larger forms. In 1829 he made his first of eleven visits to England, where he later received inspiration for some of his best works. In 1833 he served as director of concerts at Düsseldorf. From 1835 to 1843 Mendelssohn was conductor and teacher at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig. For the two years following he served the King of Prussia as royal Kapellmeister and director of the musical division of the Academy of Arts. He established and directed the Leipzig Conservatory, was a friend of every important musician of his day, and in all his musical compositions of every form he reflected a true Christian spirit of consecration. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mentzer, Johann, 1658-1734
Johann Mentzer, the author of this hymn, was born in 1658, in Sahmen, near Roxenburg in Silesia, and studied theology in Wittenberg. He became pastor in Merzdorf, 1691. He was transferred to Hauswalde in 1693, and in the year 1696 to Chemnitz, near Bernstadt, Saxony, where he died in 1734. He was an intimate friend of Count N. L. von Zinzendorf and had connections also with other famous hymn writers. About 30 of his hymns were included in contemporary hymnaries. Mentzer’s hymns are characterized by a deeply religious sentiment and fervent love for the Savior. Zinzendorf called Mentzer “a Christian purged in the furnace of tribulations. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MENTZER, Johann (1658-1734), was born July 27, 1658 at Jahmen, near Rothenburg in Silesia, and studied theology at Wittenberg. In 1691 he was appointed pastor at Merzdorf, in 1693 at Hauswalde, near Bischofswerde; in 1696 at Chemnitz, near Bernstadt, Saxony, where he died February 24, 1734. He was a good friend of J. C. Schwedler, Henriette Catherine von Gersdorf, and N. Ludwig von Zinzendorf, all hymn-writers and close neighbors. He had his share of afflictions. He wrote a large number of hymns, over 30 of which appeared in various hymn-books of his time. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Messenger, J. A., 1843
MESSENGER, John A. (?). In the English version of D’Aubigne’s History of the Reformation we find this translation of a portion of Luther’s ballad on the martyrs of Brussels, and Messenger is given as translator. Julian records this also. There are no other details available. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Meyer, Anna Magdalena, née Plehn, 1867-1941
MEYER, Anna Magdalena, née Plehn (1867-1941), was born November 14, 1867, in Alt-Rüdnitz, Neumark, Germany. Her parents were Georg Plehn and Ottilie, née Kassube. Her father was teacher of the Lutheran school at Alt-Rüdnitz, for nine and one half years, beginning in 1859. He resigned his position in 1869 and emigrated to America with his wife and four children. Entering our Practical Seminary, then at St. Louis, he was admitted to the ministry in 1871. After serving at Lake Ridge and Tecumseh, Michigan, several years, he served at Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, for twenty-two years. At Chippewa Falls Anna Meyer received her schooling, first in the Christian day school, then at the local high school, after which she taught school herself for a number of years. On July 25, 1893, she was united in marriage with the Rev. Christian Meyer of Howard, South Dakota. Her husband died in 1939, after serving congregations in Nebraska, Illinois, and Wisconsin. She wrote original poems and translations from the German, which were published in church periodicals. An invalid for over a year, she died at Milwaukee, Wis., August 18, 1941, and was laid to rest beside her husband, three days later, at Sheboygan, Wis. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Meyer, Franz Heinrich Christoph, 1705-67
MEYER, Franz Heinrich Christoph (1705-1767), was born, February 8, 1705, in Hanover, where his father Franz David Meyer was castle church organist, an office which his grandfather David Meyer had held and which he was to occupy after his father in 1734. His own two sons followed him in the same capacity. He was commissioned to provide the new tunes for the enlarged edition of the Hannöverisches Kirchengesangbuch, 1740. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Meyfart, Johann Matthias, 1590-1642
Johann Matthäus Meyfart was born in Jena, November 9, 1590. He studied at the universities of Jena and Wittenberg (M. A., 1611; D. D., 1624). For a while he held a position in the faculty of philosophy in Jena. In 1616 he was appointed professor at the gymnasium in Coburg, and in 1623 was made director of the same institution. He was a zealous worker for the cause of good morals and the spiritual development among those who attended the institution. A publication, De Disciplina Ecclesiastica, issued in 1633, aroused resentment among his colleagues and became the occasion for a complaint to the authorities, with the result that Meyfart accepted a call to become professor of theology at the University of Erfurt. In 1634 he was promoted to the rectorship of this university, and later also served as pastor of the Prediger Kirche. Meyfart died in Erfurt January 26, 1642. He was the author of many works, all devoted to the same cause of raising the moral and spiritual standards among the people, and especially among the younger generations. As a rule he encountered considerable opposition and ridicule, and he did not live to see much fruits of his labors in that line. He wrote only a very few hymns. (From J. Mearns). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MEYFART, Johann Matthaeus (1590-1642), was born November 9, 1590, at Jena; studied at Jena and received several degrees; in 1616 he was made professor at Coburg. There he was a great moral power. In 1633 he published De Disciplina eecleslastica, on account of which his colleagues made a complaint to the government. He left there and became theological professor at the revived University of Erfurt. He died at Erfurt, January 26, 1642. Meyfart is noted for his devotional works: Tuba Poenitentiae prophetica, 1625; Tuba novissima, 1626; Hoellisches Sodema, 1629; Himmlisches Jerusalem, 1630; Jüngstes Gericht, 1632. These were noted for their vivid portrayals and their earnest calls to repentance and amendment of life. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Miller, Edward, 1731-1807
Edward Miller (1735-1807), organist of Doncaster, England, composed a number of church melodies and other works. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MILLER, Edward (1731-1807), was born at Norwich, England. He studied music under Dr. Burney and at one time played the German flute in Händel’s orchestra. He was organist of Doncaster Parish Church from 1756 to 1807. Miller received his degree of Doctor of Music from Cambridge in 1786, and in the following year he published Elements of Thorough-Bass and Composition. He wrote a number of elegies songs, sonatas, flute solos, and psalm tunes; he edited The Psalms of David in 1790 and Psalms and Hymns Set to New Music in 1801. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mills, Henry, 1786-1867
Dr. Henry Mills was born in Morristown, New Jersey, 1786. He became a minister in the Presbyterian Church and later professor at Auburn Theological Seminary. Mills died in Auburn, New York, 1867. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Milman, Henry Hart, 1791-1868
Henry Hart Milman was born January 10, 1791, in London. His father, Sir Francis Milman, was the private physician of King George III. Henry was educated in Dr. gurney’s Academy, Greenwich, in Eton, and in Brasenose College, Oxford, where he won prizes for literary productions in verse and prose, both in English and in Latin. At the beginning of his career he also wrote dramas which proved successful.—Being ordained to the ministry in 1817, he was appointed vicar of St. Mary’s, Reading. In 1821 he was appointed professor of poetry at Oxford. Sir Robert Peel secured his appointment as canon at Westminster and rector of St. Margaret’s. In 1849 he was elected dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral. Milman was a prolific writer and was widely recognized for his work in church history. His most important productions in poetry are The Fall of Jerusalem, The Martyr of Antioch, together with 13 hymns, which are used very extensively. These hymns were printed, 1827, in Heber’s Posthumous Hymns, mentioned above. Milman died September 24, 1868. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MILMAN, Henry Hart (1791-1868), was born on February 10, 1791, in the parish of St. James, Westminster, London, and received his early training at Dr. Burney’s at Greenwich and at Eton. Then he attended Brasenose College, Oxford, and took first place in classics, also carrying off a number of prizes, - an event chronicled in one of the Ingoldsby Legends as follows: [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
His lines on Apollo [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Beat all the rest hollow, [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
And gained him the Newdigate prize. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Milman received his B. A. in 1813 and his M. A. in 1816. In the latter year he was ordained and served as Vicar of St. Mary’s, Reading, until 1835. He wrote a number of plays, his tragedy, Fazio, being perhaps the best known. In 1821 Milman was appointed Professor of Poetry at Oxford, an office which he held for 10 years. He seems to have started his more intensive study of theology about the year 1827 his Bampton Lectures (delivered at Oxford), and his History of the Jews being the first products of the transition. In 1835 Milman was presented with the Canonry at Westminster and the Rectory of St. Margaret’s by Sir Robert Peel. He was made Dean of St. Paul’s in 1849, and five years later published his greatest work, History of Latin Christianity. Milman wrote about 13 hymns, all of which are noteworthy for their high literary expression and lyric grace. His Poetic Works were published complete in three volumes in 1839. He died on September 24, 1868. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Möck, Christian, 1737-1818
MÖCK, Christian (1737-1818), was born on October 18, 1737, at Thann, on the Altmühl. He was interested in music from his earliest youth and served as oboist in the chapel of an infantry regiment in Ansbach from 1771 to 1781, in the latter year he became organist of the Cathedral there, in which position he served the Church for 37 years. He died April 11, 1818. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mohr, Joseph, 1792-1848
Joseph Mohr was born December 11, 1792, in Salzburg, Austria. He was ordained to the ministry in the Roman Catholic Church August 21, 1815, by the Bishop of Salzburg. He served in various places in this bishopric until his death, December 4, 1848. Franz Gruber, born November 25, 1787, in Hochburg, near Linz, and died in 1863, as organist of Hallein, near Salzburg. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MOHR, Joseph (1792-1848), was born in Salzburg, Austria, December 11, 1792. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest, August 21, 1815, he served at Ramsau, Laufen, Kuchl, and other parishes in the diocese of Salzburg. He died at Wagrein, December 4, 1848. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Monk, William Henry, 1823-89
The melody (St. Mathias) is by W. H. Monk, English church musician, 1823-89. It has the name of the church at Stoke Newington, where Monk was organist. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MONK, William Henry, Mus. D. (1823-1889). Born in London, March 16, 1823, he became organist at St. Matthias Church, Stoke Newington, where he was able to conduct a daily choral service with only a volunteer choir. He was also organist and choir director of Kings College, London, and professor of music. From 1876 he was professor in the National Training School for Music and at Bedford College. His chief fame rests on his work as musical editor of Hymns Ancient and Modern at which he was engaged practically until his death. He had the sole musical initiative and veto on the original edition, and no other musical counsel was called in until the position of the book had been made. He also founded and edited the musical journal The Parish Choir. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
96, 496, 561
setting: 393, 407
Monsell, John Samuel Bewley, 1811-75
John Samuel Bewley Monsell was born March 2, 1811, in St. Columbs, Londonderry, Ireland, where his father, Thomas Bewley Monsell, was archdeacon. John Samuel was educated in Trinity College, Dublin, and was ordained to the ministry in the Episcopalian Church and appointed assistant to Bishop Mant. Afterwards he served as chancellor of the bishopric of Connor and as rector of Ramoan. In 1853 he became vicar of Eghan and in 1870 rector of St. Nicholas, Guilzford. He died there in 1875 through an accident, falling down from the roof of the church, which was undergoing repairs. Monsell wrote about 300 hymns. Of this number about one-fourth are in common use. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MONSELL, John Samuel Bewley (1811-1875), was born in Londonderry, Ireland, on March 2, 1811. He received his education at Trinity College, Dublin. He was a well-known divine of the Church of England and a popular writer of prose and verse. His most popular book was Our New Vicar, 1867; it was printed in sixteen editions. He wrote about 300 hymns. He died as the result of a fall from the roof of his church at Guildford, which was in the course of rebuilding, on April 9, 1875. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Montgomery, James, 1771-1854
James Montgomery was born in Irvine, Ayrshire, 1771. His father, John Montgomery, was Irish and a minister of the Moravian Church. It was decided that James should also become a minister in the same church, and he was sent to their seminary in Fulneck, near Leeds. His parents were sent as missionaries to the West Indies, where both died. Their son, compelled to give up his plan of entering the ministry, left Fulneck in 1787. He was given a position by a merchant of Mirfield, where he worked for a year and a half. One more year was spent in another little village. Then we find him setting out for London with a few of his poems in manuscript. He wished to have them printed and tried to secure the aid of a publisher, but without success. Later, in 1792, he was given a position by a publisher in Sheffield, which town became his future home. The owner and editor of The Sheffield Register was a man named Robert Gales. He was a liberal minded journalist, who shared many of the views of young Montgomery. Gales openly espoused the cause of the common people, but fell out with the authorities and was forced to leave Sheffield in 1794.
Montgomery now became owner and editor of the paper and changed its name to The Sheffield Iris. The policy of the paper remained liberal and radical, and Montgomery was imprisoned and fined two times for “seditious articles.” In 1797 he published a volume of poems entitled Prison Amusements, because some of them had been written while he was in the prison at York. For 30 years he served as the editor of the paper. For a space of 50 years he contributed poems and hymns which brought him fame and extended his influence. Aside from his editorial and literary work, he was a lecturer and a zealous worker for missions and for The Bible Society. His lectures on English literature and later, those dealing with poetry and literature in general, delivered before the Royal Institute, aroused great interest, and were printed both in London and in New York.
In 1833 Montgomery was granted a royal pension of 200 pounds annually. He was never married. At the age of 83 he died, while sleeping, and he was buried at public expense. A fine monument was erected in his memory in the Sheffield cemetery. A Wesley chapel and another public building in Sheffield bear his name. He wrote between 400 and 500 hymns. As a hymn writer he ranks among the best, with Watts, Wesley, Newton, and Cowper. His best hymns, however, were written during his earlier days. In later years he wrote too much. About 100 of his hymns are in general use. Like many others, Montgomery detested those who took liberties with his poems, while he himself, without further ado, undertook to change hymns such as “Rock of Ages” and “There is a Fountain filled with Blood ;” for which he was justly criticized. In general, however, Montgomery deserves the best of praise. He was a talented poet, had a broad view of life, and was filled with a pious spirit. He could express deep Christian feelings without becoming sentimental. With a firm faith he combined a child-like, pious mind. He had acquired a very thorough knowledge of the Bible. His hymns bear the marks of a fine sense of rhythm and musical expression.
A list of his principal works includes the following:
1. Prison amusements, 1797.
2. The Wanderer of Switzerland, 1806.
3. The West Indies and other Poems, 1807, in which he praises the abolition of negro slavery.
4. The World before the Flood, 1813.
5. Greenland and other Poems, 1819.
6. Songs of Zion, 56 Hymns, 1822.
7. The Christian Psalmist, 100 Hymns, 1825.
8. The Christian Poet, 1825.
9. The Pelican Island, 1828.
10. The Poet’s Portfolio, 1835.
11. Original Hymns for Public, Private, and Social Devotion, 1853, containing 355 hymns and 3 doxologies. He also contributed many hymns to other hymnals. A great number of his hymns were first printed in The Sheffield Iris. His poetical works were published in four editions, 1828, 1836, 1841, and 1854. Grundtvig has translated two of Montgomery’s hymns. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MONTGOMERY, James (1771-1854), was the oldest son of John Montgomery, an Irish minister of the Moravian Church, and was born in Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland, on November 4, 1771. At the age of seven he was sent to school at Fulneck in Yorkshire to prepare for the ministry. It was during his years at Fulneck that his parents were sent to the West Indies as missionaries. Both of his parents died there. He left Fulneck in 1787 and received work as a merchant in Mirfield. Despite his great dislike for the work, Montgomery worked in Mirfield for a year and a half. Then he took a similar position at Wath only to find it quite as unsuited to his taste as the former. He finally set out for London with a copy of his poems in the hope of finding a publisher for them. In this he failed. He did, however, get in touch with Mr. Robert Gales of Sheffield, the owner and editor of the Radical Sheffield Register. Since Montgomery soon shared the views of Mr. Gales, he became coeditor. When Mr. Gales was forced to leave England to avoid prosecution, in 1794, Montgomery took over the paper and became its owner and editor. Montgomery changed the name of the paper to the Sheffield Iris. During the first two years of his editorship Montgomery was imprisoned twice in the Castle of York and fined, once for three months for commemorating the fall of the Bastille and again for six months for reporting a riot in Sheffield. But Montgomery did not remain a strict radical all his life. At the age of forty-three he returned to the Moravian congregation at Fulneck and became an active member. He was a zealous worker for missions and was an active member of the Bible Society. Montgomery was also a bitter opponent of slavery. He could not forget that his parents had given their lives as missionaries to the wretched blacks of the West Indies. His father’s grave was at Barbados, and his mother was sleeping on the island of Tobago. Besides contributing poetry and hymns to the world for a period of fifty years, Montgomery lectured on poetry and literature. In 1833 he received a royal pension of $1,000.00 per year. James Montgomery never married. He reached the ripe old age of 83. He died at Sheffield and was honored with a public burial. He wrote 400 hymns, of which 100 are still in common use. A perusal of almost any English evangelical hymn-book will probably reveal more hymns by this gifted and consecrated man than by any other author, excepting only Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley. Among his longer poems are The West Indies, a poem in honor of the abolition of the African slave trade by the British Legislature in 1807; The World before the Flood, 1813; The Pelican Island, 1828. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
103, 114, 284, 369, 382, 387, 412, 552
Morgen- und Abend-segen, Waldenburg, 1734
Morison, John, 1749-98
MORISON, John (1749-1798), was born in Aberdeen and studied at the university (Kings College) there. In 1780 he was installed as parish minister at Canisbay Caithness, Scotland. He died at Canisbay, June 12,1798. His work in hymnody was done in connection with the revision of the Scottish Translations and Paraphrases of 1745, as he was appointed a member of the revision committee in 1775. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mote, Edward, 1797-1874
Edward Mote was born January 21, 1797, in Upper Thames Street, London. He became a minister in the Baptist Church, after having gone through a sincere conversion under the influence of J. Hyatt’s preaching. During the last twenty-six years of his life he labored in Horsham, Sussex, where he died November 13, 1874. Edward Mote wrote upwards of 100 hymns, which were printed in his Hymns of Praise, mentioned above. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
MOTE, Edward (1797-1874), was born in London on January 27, 1797. As a youth he went astray, but was converted in 1813 under the preaching of the Rev. J. Hyatt. Thereupon he joined the congregation of the Rev. Alex Fletcher. Two years later he joined the Baptist Church. For some years he plied the trade of a cabinetmaker, spending some of his spare time writing for the press. At the age of fifty-five he entered the Baptist ministry. From 1852 until his death on November 13 1874, he was pastor of the Baptist Church at Horsham, Essex. He published Hymns of Praise, London, 1836, which contained about 100 of his own compositions. Benson calls this publication an anthology of Calvinistic praise. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Mozarabic, 10th century
Mueller, John Theodore, 1885-1967
MUELLER, John Theodore (1885- ), was born on April 5, 1885, at Janesville, Minnesota. He graduated at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, 1907. He also studied at Tulane University and Xenia Theological Seminary. From the latter institution he received the degree of Doctor of Theology. After teaching at Luther College, New Orleans, Louisiana, from 1907 to 1911, and at Wittenberg Academy, Wisconsin, from 1911 to 1913, he became pastor of St. John’s Church, Hubbell, Michigan, 1913, and of Zion Church, Ottawa, Illinois, 1917. He has served as professor of systematic theology and exegesis at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, since 1921. He is well known as an author and poet. Among his works are: Christian Fundamentals, 1926; The Church at Corinth, 1928; Christian Dogmatics, 1934; John Paton, 1941; Great Missionaries to Africa, 1941. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
tr. 47, 272
Mühlmann, Johannes, 1573-1613
MÜHLMANN, Johannes (1573-1613), was born at Pegau, 1573, studied at Leipzig and Jena, and after serving as clergyman at Leipzig, Naumberg, and Laucha, he returned to Leipzig and ultimately became professor of theology at the university there. He died of typhus, November 14, 1613. He was a staunch defender of Lutheranism. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Musae Sionae, 1609
Musicalisch Hand-Buch, Hamburg, 1690
Musika Deutsch, Nürnberg, 1532
Neale, John Mason, 1818-66
John Mason Neale, son of the preacher, Cornelius Neale, was born January 24, 1818, in London. He was graduated from Cambridge, 1840, and became Fellow at Downing College. Eleven times he won the Seatonian prize for religious poetry. He was ordained in 1841 and became warden of Sackville College, East Greenstead, 1846. Here he established the Sisterhood of Margaret, a school for nurses, which in time developed into an extensive institution including an orphanage, an intermediate school for young girls, and a reformatory at Aldershot.
Dr. Neale was an exceptionally active man, and his piety bordered on fanaticism. Throughout his life he had to struggle against poverty and poor health. His Stories for Children were written chiefly to gain the means of existence. He “wasted” his earnings in his charity work for others. Dr. Neale wrote many historical and theological treatises. But especially important is his valuable contribution to the treasury of church hymns. Besides furnishing many original hymns, he made a large number of splendid translations of Latin and Greek hymns and sequences. Of these, nineteen have found a place in The Lutheran Hymnary. Neale died in 1866 at the age of 44 years. His great service in the interest of church hymns will be more fully mentioned in a later paragraph. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NEALE, John Mason (1818-1866), was born on January 24, 1818, in London, the son of the Rev. Cornelius Neale, a man of considerable learning. His father died in 1823, and Neale’s education continued under his gifted mother’s direction. Later he attended Sherborne Grammar School and after that was a private pupil, first of the Rev. William Russell, Rector of Shepperton, and then of Prof. Challis. In 1836 he obtained a scholarship in Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was considered the best student in his class. He graduated as B. A. in 1840, continued as a Fellow at Downing College, and graduated as M. A. in 1845. Neale did not graduate with more than ordinary degrees, for he had the greatest antipathy to mathematics, proficiency in which was a prerequisite for Classical Honors. However he did win many honors and prizes while at college. There, too, he identified himself with the Church movement, becoming a founder of the Ecclesiological, or as it was commonly called the Cambridge Camden Society. Neale was ordained deacon in 1841 and priest in the following year. In the latter year he married Miss Sarah Norman Webster, the daughter of an evangelical clergyman. In 1843 Neale was presented with a small incumbency of Crawley, Sussex. Because of his bad lungs, he was obliged to go to Madeira as the only chance of saving his life. He stayed there until the summer of 1844. In 1846 he was presented by Lord Delaware with the Wardenship of Sackville College, East Grinstead. Here in quiet retreat he devoted himself to literary work, to the advancement of the great church revival, and to the Sisterhood of St. Margaret’s, which he founded with Miss S. A. Gream. Other institutions gradually arose in connection with this Sisterhood of St. Margaret’s, viz., an orphanage, a Middle Class School for girls, and a House at Aldershot for the reformation of fallen women. The blessings which the East Grinstead Sisters brought to thousands of sick and suffering cannot be counted. Dr. Neale met with many difficulties and great opposition from the outside, which on one occasion, if not more, culminated in actual violence. His character, however was a happy mixture of gentleness and firmness, and he therefore lived down all opposition. His last public act was to lay the foundation of a new convent for the Sisters on July 20, 1865. Neale took sick the following spring and after five months of acute suffering died August 1, 1866. One of his traits must not pass unnoticed - his charity, which was unbounded. He was an industrious and voluminous writer of prose and verse. His prose works include: Commentary on the Psalms, The History of the Holy Eastern Church, The Primitive Liturgies of St. Mark, St. Clement, St. James, St. Chrysostom, and St. Basil. His original poetical works include: Hymns for Children, 1842; Hymns for the Young, 1844; Songs and Ballads for the People, 1844. As a translator Neale’s success was preeminent. To him more than to any one else we owe some of the most successful translations from the classical languages. Neale had all the qualifications of a good translator - an excellent knowledge of the classics and medieval Latin and an exquisite ear for melody and spiritedness. From the Latin Dr. Neale translated hymns which appeared in 1851 under the title Medieval Hymns and Sequences and in 1852-1854 Hymnal Noted. These two were followed by Hymns, chiefly Medieval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise, 1865. Hymns of the Eastern Church, 1862, are translations from the Greek. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
8, 108, 113, 159, 173, 181, 223, 277, 314, 347, 356, 366, 534, 548, 574
Neander, Joachim, 1650-80
Joachim Neander was born 1650, in Bremen, where his father, the minister Johann Joachim Neander, served as a teacher at the pedagogium. The family name was Neumann, or Niemann, but the grandfather, Joachim N., who also was a minister, changed the name to Neander. The younger Joachim completed the course at the pedagogium and afterwards at the gymnasium of Bremen. Here he associated with frivolous companions and took part in the reckless life of the students. In 1670 the noted preacher and pietist, Theodor Under-Eyck, formerly pastor at Mülheim, was appointed rector of St. Martin’s Church of Bremen. Young Neander and two like-minded companions went one day to Under-Eyck’s church, more particularly to criticize and ridicule the service. But Neander, being deeply stirred by the forceful sermon of this pious man, began to entertain serious scruples as to the salvation of his soul, and through the fatherly guidance of Under-Eyck he was led forward to a true conversion. In 1671, when he had concluded his studies, he was appointed private tutor for the sons of a few wealthy merchants. He accompanied the boys to the university of Heidelberg and remained there till the fall of 1673. He spent the following year in Frankfurt am Main, where he became acquainted with Philipp Jakob Spener and J. J. Schütz, and others belonging to this circle. In the spring of 1674 he was appointed rector of the Latin school at Düsseldorf. This institution was at that time under the supervision of the Reformed pastor and the church council of that city. The pastor, Sylvester Lürsen (also from Bremen, and a few years older than Neander), was a very able and earnest man, but jealous and of a contentious spirit. At first all went well, and Neander assisted the minister both in preaching and in the pastoral work. But Neander came under the influence of Labadie and other separatists. He absented himself from the Lord’s Supper for the reason that he could not for conscience’ sake partake of it together with the unconverted sinners. Others followed his example. Neither did he attend public services regularly. Then, without consulting the pastor and the elders of the church, he began to conduct prayer meetings, set up special holidays for the school, changed the hours for the classes, and undertook a remodeling of the school buildings, all of his own accord. In 1676 the church council investigated the matter and Neander was suspended as teacher and preacher from January, 1677. But already the same month he signed a declaration binding himself to follow the rules of the church and school. He was then permitted to resume his work as teacher, but could not continue as assistant preacher. The story of his exile from Dusseldorf and his sojourn in Neanderthal, near Mettmann, is not reliable. Yet it is not impossible that some of his hymns were composed during his frequent trips into the beautiful Neanderthal. In 1679 Neander was called to Bremen as Under-Eyck’s assistant at the church of St. Martin. He accepted, although the position offered only 40 thaler per year and home. This was intended as a stepping stone to a better position for him, but his career was ended May 31, 1680. During his illness he had to go through a violent spiritual struggle, as it appeared to him that the Lord had hidden His face from him. But he found comfort in these words: “It is better to hope unto death than to die in unbelief.” Death came on Pentecost Monday. He requested that Hebrews 7: 9 be read to him, and when asked how he felt, he replied: “The Lord has settled my account, Lord Jesus, make also me ready.” Shortly after he said in a whisper, “It is well with me. The mountains shall be moved, and the hills shall tremble, yet the grace of God shall not depart from me, and His covenant of peace shall not be moved.”
Neander was the first hymn writer of importance in the Reformed Church of Germany. The greater number of his hymns were evidently written at Dusseldorf. Fifty-seven of these were published in the volume, Glaub- und Liebesübung, mentioned above. In the fifth edition of this book, printed in Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1691, eight new hymns were added. W. Müller says, “Neander’s hymns are sincere and unpretentious expressions coming from a heart which has turned to God and found salvation in Him; they are not brilliant, but they are deeply religious and Biblical in expression and spirit, and, furthermore, they are free from obscure mysticism.” [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NEANDER, Joachim (1650-1680), was born at Bremen, the eldest child of Johann Joachim Neander and Catharina, née Knipping. The father was a master in the Paedogogium at Bremen. The grandfather had changed the family name from Neumann or Niemann to the Greek form. Joachim was descended from a long line of distinguished clergymen, going back as far as his great-great-grandfather. Neander first attended the Paedogogium in Bremen. In October of 1866 he entered as a student at the Academic Gymnasium of Bremen. His student life was as riotous and profligate as that of his fellow-students. He once went to a service at St. Martin’s Church with two like-minded comrades to criticize and find amusement. But the earnestness of the Rev. Theodore Under-Eyck touched his heart, and subsequent conversations with Under-Eyck proved the turning point of his spiritual life. Hatfield reports Neander’s conversion as coming after his conversations with the Rev. Under-Eyck, when Neander lost his way among the rocks and wooded hills in eager pursuit of game. Night had overtaken him, and he wandered about until he found himself on the very edge of a steep precipice, where another step forward would have ended his life. He now fell on his knees in prayer and vowed to give himself to Gods service. He then resumed his search for a way of escape, and speedily, as if led by a divine hand, he succeeded in finding the well-known path to his home. Neander kept his vow and became a new man. In the spring of 1671 Neander became the tutor of five young men, sons of wealthy merchants at Frankfurt-am-Main and accompanied them to the University of Heidelberg. Here Neander remained until 1673, and here he learned to know and love the beauties of nature. In the spring of 1674 Neander was appointed Rector of the Latin School at Düsseldorf. This institution was under the supervision of a Reformed pastor, Sylvester Lürsen, an able man, but of a contentious spirit. At first the two men worked together harmoniously, Neander assisting with pastoral duties, and preaching occasionally, although he was not ordained as a clergyman. Later, however, he fell under the influence of a group of separatists, influenced by Labadie, and began to imitate their practices. He refused to receive the Lord’s Supper on the ground that he could not partake of it with the unconverted. He induced others to follow his example. He also became less regular in his attendance at public worship and began to conduct prayer meetings and services of his own. In 1676 the church council of Düsseldorf investigated his conduct and dismissed him from his office. Fourteen days after this action was taken, however, Neander signed a declaration in which he promised to abide by the rules of the church and school, whereupon he was reinstated. There is a legend to the effect that, during the period of his suspension from service, he spent most of his time living in a cave in the beautiful Neanderthal, near Mettmann, on the Rhine, and that he wrote many of his hymns at this place. It is a well-established fact that Neander’s great love for nature frequently led him to this place, and a cavern in the picturesque glen still bears the name of Neander’s Cave. In July, 1679, Neander became an unordained assistant of the Rev. Under-Eyck at St. Martin’s Church. He most probably would have advanced to the pastorate, but consumption brought death the following year. Joachim Neander is regarded as the foremost hymn-writer of the German Reformed Church and is called the Paul Gerhardt of the Calvinists. He wrote about 60 hymns. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
29, 217, 547
Nederlandtsch Gedenckclank, Haarlem, 1626
Nelson, Horatio Bolton, 1823-1913
Horatio Earl Nelson, the third earl with this name, was born August 7, 1823. He was the son of Thomas Bolton, Burnham, Norfolk, who was a nephew of the famous Admiral Viscount Nelson, whose name he received when he became the second earl. Our hymn writer was educated at Eton and Cambridge. He edited the Salisbury Hymn Book with the assistance of John Keble, 1857. This was revised in 1868, under the title The Sarum Hymnal. His own hymns appeared in the above-mentioned Hymns for Saints’ Day, etc. He also published a prayer book with the Scripture passages for each day of the year and other works. Earl Nelson died in 1913. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Neswick, Bruce, b. 1956
Neues Gesangbuch, Dresden, 1593
Neumann, Caspar, 1648-1715
NEUMANN, Caspar (1648-1715), was born at Breslau, September 14, 1648. He attended the University of Jena and was graduated with an M. A. in 1670. For some time he lectured at this university. On November 30, 1673, he was ordained traveling chaplain to the son of Duke Ernst of Gotha, Prince Christian. Three years later he became court-preacher at Altenburg. He was appointed diaconus of St. Mary Magdalene Church at Breslau in December, 1678, and was pastor there in 1689. The following year he accepted the position as pastor of St. Elizabeth’s Church at Breslau. In connection with this position he also inspected churches and schools of his district and was first professor of theology in the two Gymnasia at Breslau. He died at Breslau on January 27, 1715. Neumann was regarded as a poet of first rank. His hymns, 39 in all, were used almost entirely in such collections as Breslauische Gesangbuch, 1748; Schweidnitzer Gesangbuch, 1749; and the Hirschberger Gesangbuch, 1752. Neumann was a celebrated preacher, but his influence was felt more through his written than through his spoken word. He published a prayer-book, Kern aller Gebete, Breslau, 1680. This book passed through many editions. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Neumark, Georg C., 1621-81
Georg Neumark was born in Langensalza, Thüringen, March 16, 1621. He was educated in the gymnasiums of Schleusingen and of Gotha, completing his course at the latter place in 1641. In the fall of the same year he accompanied some merchants to an exposition in Leipzig. Here he joined a party headed for Lübeck, and it was his intention to go on to Königsberg to continue his studies at the university in that city. When they had passed through Magdeburg they were attacked by robbers. Neumark was stripped of all his possessions except a prayer book, and a small sum of money which was sewed up in his clothes. He returned to Magdeburg and tried to get employment, but was unsuccessful. He fared likewise in Lüneburg, Winsen, and Hamburg. Upon arriving in Kiel, he found a good friend in the resident pastor, Nicolaus Becker, who was also a native of Thüringen. But still the chances for employment seemed as remote as ever. Then it happened that the family tutor of the household of the judge, Stephan Henning, fell from grace and fled. Becker now recommended Neumark for the position and was successful in securing it for him. It was on the day of his appointment that he wrote the present hymn, filled with great joy and thankfulness for the gracious help of God. It is likely that he wrote the melody at the same time. Having earned some money he left, in 1643, for Königsberg, where he studied law and also poetry under the famous teacher, Simon Dach. He earned his livelihood by tutoring, but again he had the misfortune of losing all his worldly possessions this time through fire. After leaving Königsberg, he visited Warsaw, Dorn, Danzig, and Hamburg. During the latter part of 1651 he returned to Thüringen, where Duke Wilhelm II of Sachse-Weimar made his acquaintance. The duke was president of the most influential German literary society of the seventeenth century. He appointed Neumark poet and librarian of the court at Weimar, and later secretary of the archives. In 1653 he became a member of the Fruit-bearing Society and soon afterwards became secretary and historian of the society. He was elected member also of another order of poets and ranked high as a writer. In 1681 he was stricken with blindness, and died on the 18th of July of the same year. J. S. Bach has written a cantata upon Neumark’s melody for this hymn, and Mendelssohn made use of it in his oratorio, St. Paul. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NEUMARK, Georg (1621-1681), was born on March 16, 1621, the son of Michael Neumark, a clothier of Langensalza, Thuringia, where Georg was born. After receiving his education at the gymnasia of Schleusingen and Gotha, Neumark became a family tutor. He wished to continue his education at the University of Königsberg but on the way there he was robbed of all of his possessions except his prayer-book and a small amount of money sewn in his clothes. This made university attendance impossible for him at this time, as he was reduced to extreme poverty. He returned to Magdeburg. Failing to find work there, he tried in vain also at Lüneburg, Winsen, and Hamburg till finally at Kiel he found employment through Nicolaus Becker, a former Thuringian, and chief pastor of the city. Neumark became tutor in the home of Judge Stephen Henning. Immediately after Neumark received this position, he wrote “If thou but suffer God to guide thee.” He saved enough money to be able to matriculate at the University of Königsberg in 1643. Here he remained for five years studying law and poetry, the latter under the famous Simon Dach (q. v.). Thereafter Neumark earned a precious livelihood in Warsaw, Thorn, Danzig, and Hamburg. In Hamburg he found employment through the good graces of the Swedish ambassador. Later he returned to Thuringia as a court poet, librarian, and registrar to Duke Wilhelm II of Saxe-Weimar. Finally he became custodian of the ducal archives. In 1656 Neumark became secretary of the Fruit-Bearing Society. Besides being a hymn-writer, Neumark was also a musician. He died July 18, 1681. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
205, 479, 563
Neumeister, Erdman, 1671-1756
Erdmann Neumeister was born May 12, 1671, in Uechteritz, near Weissenfels. He was educated at the University of Leipzig (1689-95). Having taken final examinations, he entered the ministry two years later. He served in Bibra and for a time also as superintendent of the Eckartsberg district, until 1704, when Duke Johann Georg appointed him court preacher of Weissenfels. In 1706 he became court preacher, member of the consistory, and superintendent of Sorau. Finally, in 1715, he accepted the call to the church of St. Jacobi, in Hamburg, where he served until his death, in 1756.
Neumeister became known as one of the leading preachers of his time, zealous for the orthodox Lutheran doctrine and confessions. From the pulpit and through the press he vigorously opposed the prevalent, unsound, morose pietism and similar phases of religious practice. During his student days he began to write hymns and ranks high as a hymn writer. In all he wrote over 650 hymns. Many of his best productions give evidence of rich Christian experience and sincere study of the Scriptures. His hymns are characterized by simple and striking expressions and fervent, poetic feeling. Several of his hymns are based upon older versions. A number of his later productions are of minor rank.
The greater number of Neumeister’s hymns appeared in the following publications: 1. Der Zugang zum Gnadenstuhle Jesu Christi, Weissenfels (seven editions of devotional books containing hymns, 1705-24); 2. Fünffache Kirchen-Andachten, Leipzig, 1716; 3. Evangelischer Nachklang, Hamburg, two editions (1718 and 1729). [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NEUMEISTER, Erdmann (1671-1756), was born at Üchteritz on May 12, 1671. He received his education at the University of Leipzig (M. A. 1695). In 1698 he became pastor and assistant superintendent of the Eckartsberg District. He entered upon the office of senior court preacher, consistorialrath, and superintendent in 1706 at Sorau. In the year 1715 he accepted the appointment of pastor of St. James’s Church of Hamburg. He died in that city on August 18, 1756. Neumeister ranks high among the German hymn-writers of the eighteenth century, not only for the number of his hymns (650), but also for their abiding value. He uses excellent language. All of his poems reveal a humble trust and faith in God. Neumeister was bitterly opposed to Pietism, and he used the pulpit and the press to warn the people against it and to instruct them in true Lutheranism. It was his purpose to preserve the simplicity of faith from the subjective novelties of this period. One of his poems clearly shows his feelings towards Pietism (Koch, V, 374): [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Und da der Teufel in der Welt Und gib, dass unser Lebenslauf [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Sich auch durch Frömmigkeit verstellt, Von Herzen fromm, und nie darbei [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
So decke seine Bosheit auf Kein pietistisch Wesen sei. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Besides his accomplishments as hymnist, Neumeister was also known as an earnest and eloquent preacher. In his later life he composed tunes to the hymns he had written in his student days. He was a contemporary of J. S. Bach (q. v.), to some of whose Cantatas he wrote the texts. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
246, 426, 494
Neuverfertigtes Gesang-Buch, Darmstadt, 1699
Neuvermehrtes Gesangbuch, Meiningen,1693
37, 171, 421, 470, 503
Neuvermehrtes … Gesangbuch, Braunschweig, 1661
New Catechismus Gesangbüchlein, Hamburg, 1598
79, 105, 259, 391
New Catholic Hymnal, 1971
Newbolt, Michael R., 1874-1956
Newton, John, 1725-1807
John Newton was born in London, July 24, 1725. His father served as captain of a merchant vessel. His mother was a very pious, but sickly woman, whose only joy was to instruct her little child, to read and to pray with him. At the age of four years the boy could read. He read the Westminster Catechism and the accompanying Bible passages, together with Dr. Watts’ Catechism and Hymns for Children. It was the mother’s hope and prayer that the boy should become a minister. Frequently she expressed this desire to her son. The instruction and spiritual care which he received from his pious mother had a far-reaching influence upon his future. But when John was only seven years of age, his mother died, and his step-mother did not continue the systematic instruction in religion. He continued in school and learned the elements of Latin. On his 11th birthday he joined his father on board ship and accompanied him on five voyages to the Mediterranean Sea. He fell in with bad comrades, and after a while became the wildest among the shipmates. Newton has himself described the life which he led during these years, and many have criticized him, saying that he has painted it unnecessarily dark. But he seems to have been fired with an immoderate desire to present himself as a terrifying example by openly portraying the unbridled life of his youth. It seems, however, that he could not entirely undisturbed enjoy his sinful life. The admonishings and prayers of the dear mother of his early childhood seemed to pursue him constantly. At times he would spend days and nights reading his Bible and praying. During several years he experienced a number of these intensely religious periods. They might sometimes last for weeks, but they were, as he himself says, a shallow Christianity. He sought to stay his conscience by reforming himself and by a strict attention to duty. But his heart lacked the deeper sincerity and earnestness, and soon he would again cast himself into the most reckless living. We do not wish to dwell upon the many sad pictures from his early years, although many incidents might be pointed out that would be of great psychological interest.
Following the second voyage he was offered a good position in Spain, but in his thoughtlessness he refused the offer, which act he later explained thus: “As I was my own worst enemy, I seemed determined that no one should be my friend.” As time went on he was drawn into the worst forms of unbelief and greatly enjoyed reading Shaftesbury’s writings. His father gave up the seafaring life, and the young man then joined one of his friends, who advanced him to midship-man. While occupying this office he would often seek to inculcate virtue and morals in his fellow workmen, while he himself led the most degraded life. This may explain the great indignation and severity with which he later on, as a pastor, attacked all forms of hypocrisy and sham-Christianity.
He fled from the service, but was recaptured and brought back to Plymouth. He was brought on board his ship and publicly whipped and degraded. Then began the darkest period of his life. He was sent to a slave ship, and treated as a slave. His ruin was impending. Only his sincere love for the young girl, Mary Catlett, to whom he was engaged at the age of 17 (she was at that time 14), now buoyed him up during this time of stress and, trial. The curious fact also deserves to be mentioned that at this time of deepest depression he undertook the study of mathematics and languages. Finally, the great crisis of Newton’s life came as he was upon a return voyage to England in 1748. By chance he received a copy of The Imitation of Christ, by Thomas a Kempis. This book stirred his soul to its depths. His awakening conscience gave him no peace, and during a storm which threatened to wreck the ship, the feeling of misery rose to a cry of despair within his soul.
From that moment Newton became a new man. Gradually he acquired greater peace of mind, but as he formerly had not been able to cast himself entirely into a life in sins, in like manner, he now felt that he could not wholly consign himself to the forgiving grace of God. It was so difficult to find the way to the heart of God, while the memories of his former life cast their dark shadows over his soul. He now sought, through strict observance of duty and a moral life, to do penance for the sins of his earlier years. This he tried to practice during the six years of his life spent as commander of a slave vessel. At the same time his moral and intellectual life ripened, as he made use of all free hours for reading and study. On his last return voyage to England he met a pious captain, and their meeting became of great blessing to Newton. This new friend spoke reverently and sincerely of the great love of Jesus Christ. They spent about a month together in meditation and prayer. Newton says that it was during this time that he received a true and living faith.
Following an illness after his last voyage, in 1754, his physician declared him unfit for service at sea. He was then given a position as inspector of docks in Liverpool. Here began his connection with Whitefield, Wesley, and the Non-Conformists. He began the study of Hebrew and Greek, took part in prayer meetings, delivered occasional sermons at the meetings of the dissenters, until 1764, when he was ordained pastor of Olney. For a number of years his labors were richly blessed, through his sermons, his pastoral work, and not the least through his hymns. The Olney House became the center of a pronounced religious awakening, and Newton, the soul of this activity, was much sought as an advisor, pastor, and friend, by rich and poor alike. He carried on an extensive correspondence, and composed his best works while in the Olney parish. Among his works must be mentioned the book of The Olney Hymns, containing hymns by himself and by his friend and co-laborer, the poet William Cowper.
In 1779 Newton was appointed rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, London, where he labored until his death, December 21, 1807. When his eye-sight failed and his friends advised him to cease preaching, he replied: “What! Shall the African scoffer cease, as long as he is able to speak!”
Newton’s hymns depict in a clear and impressive manner the contrast between the utter depravity of human nature and the boundless grace of God in Jesus Christ. There is little of the spirit of rejoicing and praise, but a confident note of trust and comfort. His hymns are found in all English hymnals. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NEWTON, John (1725-1807), was born on July 24,1725, in London. His mother, a pious Dissenter, found her greatest joy in teaching her boy Scripture-passages and hymns. She often expressed the hope to her son that he might become a minister. However, she died when John was only seven years of age, and thus the boy was left with little religious restraint or influence in his life. Between the ages of eight and ten Newton acquired a meager education. When he was eleven, he joined his father, who was a sea captain, and made five voyages to the Mediterranean. His subsequent life was one of increasing dissipation and degeneration. He was pressed into the navy, but deserted. He was captured and flogged before the mast. For the next fifteen months he lived, half-starved and ill-treated, in abject degradation under a slave dealer in Africa. Through the study of Shaftesbury and the instruction of one of his comrades, Newton became an outspoken infidel. But the memory of his mother and the religious truths which she had implanted in his soul as a child gave his conscience no peace. The following factors combined to effect a very gradual change that led to his conversion to Christ: the reading of The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis, a terrific storm at sea on a return from Africa, and a deliverance from a malignant fever in Africa. The six following years, during which he commanded a slave ship, matured his Christian belief. On his last voyage he met a pious captain who helped to bring his to a truer and deeper faith in Christ. Newton returned to England, where he studied Hebrew and Greek and exercised in occasional preaching in Liverpool under the guidance of Whitefield, Wesley, and the Non-Conformists. In 1750 he married his childhood sweetheart, Mary Catlett, whose memory also had been a restraining influence in his years of degeneracy. Newton became a minister in 1758, but was not ordained until 1764 at Olney, near Cambridge. The Olney period was the most fruitful of his life. Here he wrote the Omicron Letters, 1774, the Olney Hymns, 1779, and Cardiphonia, 1781. The Olney Hymns were written in collaboration with his good friend, the poet William Cowper (q. v.). It was at Newtons suggestion that the two undertook to write a hymn-book. Of the 349 hymns in this book Cowper is credited with 66, while Newton wrote the remainder. While at Olney Newton was unwearied in his zeal for pastoral visiting, preaching, and prayer meetings. After sixteen years of service in Olney, he assumed charge of St. Mary Woolnoth in London. In 1805, when Newton was no longer able to read his text. his reply when pressed to discontinue preaching was, “What, shall the old African blasphemer stop while he can speak!” The story of his sins and his conversion, published by himself, and the subject of lifelong allusion, was the base of his influence; but it would have been little but for the vigor of his mind, his warm heart, candor, tolerance, and piety. Newton served for 28 years as rector of St. Mary Woolnoth. Among his converts were numbered Claudius Buchanan, missionary to the East Indies, and Thomas Scott, the Bible commentator. When Newton was nearly 80 years old it was necessary for a helper to stand in the pulpit to hold his manuscript. His self-composed epitaph reads, John Newton, clerk, once an Infidel and Libertine a servant of slavers in Africa, was, by the rich Mercy of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, preserved, restored, pardoned, and appointed to preach the Faith he had long labored to destroy. He died December 21, 1807. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
19, 155, 188, 214, 381, 594
Niceta of Remesiana, c. 392
Modern hymnologists and historians claim that Niceta of Remesiana was the author of “Te Deum laudamus,” about 410. Several manuscripts mention Nicetus or Nicetius. An old Latin hymnary lists the hymn as Canticum beati Niceti and expressly mentions Niceta of Remesiana as the author. Niceta, bishop of Dacia, 392-414, is praised by his friend Paulinus of Nola for his learning and poetic ability. Niceta visited Paulinus about 398 or 402. Cassiodorus, also, mentions Niceta with much praise and recognition. The oldest Danish version of “Te Deum” dates from the 13th or the 14th century. This, however, was not well adapted for use in the church. A version specially designed for the public worship is found in the collection, Een ny handbog, Rostock, 1529, by an unknown author. According to the custom of the ancient church, it was ordered to be used at matins. The translation in Landstad’s Hymnbook is by Landstad from Luther’s German version. The English version in The Lutheran Hymnary is by the Rev. Carl Døving, 1911. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
Nicholson, Sydney Hugo, 1875-1947
Sydney Hugo Nicholson was born in 1875, London, England. Nicholson served as organist at Manchester Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. [The Cyber Hymnal]
Nicolai, Philipp, 1556-1608
The author of this work, Philipp Nicolai, served as pastor of Unna while the pestilence raged there and throughout all Westphalia. In Unna alone, 1,400 persons died, among them many of Nicolai’s relatives. In this treatise he prays: “I have sought Thee, and I have found Thee, Thou most precious Lord Jesus, and I desire to love Thee. Increase in me an ardent longing after Thee, and do not withhold the object of my prayer. Even if Thou gavest me all that Thou hast brought forth, it could not satisfy me, unless Thou didst give me Thine own self. Behold, I love Thee fervently, but if I love Thee in too small a measure, help me to increase in my affection…” The following is of interest in connection with the origin of this hymn: At the time of the pestilence of 1597, Nicolai, downcast and weary, sat in his study one morning. Then he “lifted up his heart unto God,” unto his Savior and Redeemer, and from the depths of his soul sprang this grand hymn of the Savior’s love and the glories of heaven. He was filled with holy inspiration and forgot his cares, his surroundings, forgot even his meal, until the hymn was written down, three hours after dinner time. That he should inscribe the initials of Wilhelm Ernst Graf Und Herr Zu Waldeck would not prevent the hymn from being the product of holy fervor and ecstasy, when we consider the powerful influence which it has wielded throughout the Christian world for several centuries. Parallel passages to the hymn are found in Ephesians 5 and in the Song of Solomon. The assertion has been made, especially by Karl von Winterfeld, that it was built upon an old love-song: “Wie schön leuchten die Äugelein der Schönen und der Zarten mein,” with a few changes introduced by Nicolai. But Wackernagel has proved beyond a doubt that the above mentioned love-song is a frivolous and most awkward paraphrase based upon this very hymn.
A hymn like this, in which fervent love of the Savior has found true expression, a hymn whose every stanza is permeated with the spirit of this confession: “Thou art the most beautiful among the children of men, for grace is poured out upon Thy lips”—a hymn like this would be sure to find a response in the congregation, where Jesus has become the wisdom from God unto righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. And it certainly gained entrance into the hearts. It was used so extensively at weddings, that the idea really became common that if this hymn were not sung at the wedding, the persons were not properly married. Stanzas of the hymn were engraved upon bowls and kettles and vases. It was sung at Communion not only because of the bearing of the fourth stanza (L. H. 3rd St.), but in view of the plan of the whole hymn. It was used at the deathbed of Christians who had kept the pure faith in love for the Savior of their souls, and who were prepared to follow the invitation to the great supper of the Lamb, the wedding feast in the Kingdom of God. The pious theologian Johann Gerhard, died while singing the words of the seventh stanza (omitted in L. H.). Susanna Eleonora von Koseritz, during her last moments, asked that this bridal hymn be sung to her. When it was ended she said, “How glorious 1” and she repeated three times the words of this line: “Gross ist der König der Ehren,” (Praise the God of your salvation, L. H. 220, 5). The hymn has had a place in the hymnals of Sweden since 1610. It is used there as a hymn to be sung during the offertory, especially in the Christmas season. The first Danish translation is said to have been made by Hans Christensøn Sthen. This has been called in question, although the version of this hymn is found in a later edition of his hymnal, Vandrebog. The original edition is not extant. But both the hymn and its melody were well known by 1622. The English version of St. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, used in The Lutheran Hymnary is by E. J. Palmer and dates from ]892. There are at least 14 other English translations. The melody is supposed to have been adapted by the poet himself from an older one used for “Jauchzet dem Herren alle land.” It has been called the Queen of Chorales, and it deserves this title. It has a beauty and solemn charm of its own. From generation to generation it has resounded from the belfries of the churches of Germany. Philipp Nicolai was born August 10, 1556, at Mengeringhausen, Waldeck, where his father, Theodor Nicolai, was a minister. In 1576 he was appointed assistant to his father and was transferred in 1586 to Hardeck. From this latter place he was driven out by the Papists on account of certain writings which he sent out, defending his Christian faith against the Papists and the Calvinists. In 1586 he was given charge of the Lutheran congregation in Cologne, and the following year he was made court preacher to the Count of Waldeck. In 1596 he removed to Unna, in Westphalia. and from there again in 1601 to Hamburg, becoming pastor of the Church of Catharine. Nicolai died in 1608. “Of his hymns, only four seem to have been printed.” In private life, Nicolai was a most congenial personality, just as he was an esteemed and influential pastor and preacher. But in his polemical writings he would at times be fiery and cutting to the extreme. The present hymn marks the transition in hymn-writing from the objective and proper church poetry to the more subjective and spiritualizing type. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
NICOLAI, Philipp (1556-1608), the son of a Lutheran pastor, was born on August 10, 1556, at Mengeringhausen. He studied at both the universities of Erfurt and Wittenberg (D. D. 1594). In 1583 he was ordained as Lutheran pastor at Herdecke only to resign this position three years later because of the prevalence of strong Roman Catholic sentiment in that city. In 1587 he became pastor of Niederwildungen after having served there as diaconus for a year. The next year he became chief pastor of Altwildungen and also court preacher to Countess Margareta of Waldeck. It was while there that he took part in the Sacramentarian controversy raging at that time and firmly upheld the Lutheran point of view. In 1596 Nicolai became pastor at Unna in Westphalia, where he became embroiled in the controversy with the Calvinists. During his ministry at Unna the town was devastated by the pestilence. Nicolai’s window looked out to the cemetery where often thirty interments a day took place. In these dark days when every household was in mourning Nicolai wrote in his Frewden-Spiegel: [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
“There seemed to me nothing more sweet, delightful, and agreeable than the contemplation of the noble, sublime doctrine of Eternal Life obtained through the Blood of Christ. This I allowed to dwell in my heart day and night and searched the Scriptures as to what they revealed on this matter, read also the sweet treatise of the ancient doctor Saint Augustine (De Civitate Dei). … Then day by day I wrote out my meditations, found myself, thank God, wonderfully well, comforted in heart, joyful in spirit, and truly content; gave to my manuscript the name and title of a Mirror of Joy, and took this so composed Frewden-Spiegel to leave behind me (if God should call me from this world) as the token of my peaceful, joyful, Christian departure, or (if God should spare me in health) to comfort other sufferers wham He should also visit with the pestilence. … Now has the gracious, holy God most mercifully preserved me amid the dying from the dreadful pestilence and wonderfully spared me beyond all my thoughts and hopes, so that with the prophet David I can say to Him ‘Oh, how great is Thy goodness, which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee.’“ [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Nicolai gained great fame as a preacher and was called a “second Chrysostom.” He was a genius who not only possessed the gift of writing sublime poetry but revealed talent as a composer. His tune for his own “Wachet auf” has been justly called the “King of Chorales.” His tune for his other famous hymn, “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern,” has been called the “Queen of Chorales.” While at Unna Nicolai had to flee before the invasion of the Spaniards in December of 1598, but was able to return by April of the next year. In 1601 Nicolai took his last charge as chief pastor of St. Katherine’s Church in Hamburg, where he died of a fever.
6, 27, 142, 167, 348, 518, 544
Nigidius, Georg, 1525-88
NIGIDIUS (Niege), Georg (1525-1588), was born November 25, 1525, at Allendorf on the Werra and was perhaps the son of Peter Nigidius (see below). At nine years of age he came to Kassel, where, under the tutelage of Cantor Georg Kern, the foundation for a very thorough musical education was laid. From 1542 he attended the University of Marburg and graduated in 1546 with a bachelor’s degree. He enlisted in the army and thus began the restless life of a soldier. He served in the Smalcald War, at Bremen, in Scotland, at Hamburg, and was made a prisoner of war in Berlin. Some time later he became a notary in Buxtehude; then an Excise Commissioner in Stade. In the war between Denmark and Sweden he obtained a captaincy and likewise under Ludwig of Nassau in the Netherlands, 1566. After twenty years of intermittent war service he served in various civil offices. Then he re-entered army life in 1578. He then became city magistrate of Lage, near Herford, and, 1585, steward of the Kommenturei in Herford. He moved to Rinteln in 1587, where he died July 4, 1588, of apoplexy. Thus ended the colorful and checkered life of a gifted author and composer, forgotten and unknown until Prof. Dr. P. Althaus of Leipzig in 1918 made a remarkable discovery in the royal library in Berlin. Here were found, after more than three centuries, the manuscripts of several volumes of poetical and musical productions entitled: The Seven Penitential Psalms together with all manner of Christian Hymns of Praise and Thanksgiving, and also Prayers and Passages of Scripture Composed and Compiled by Georg Niege of Allendorf, a Captain. Unable to find a publisher, Nigidius had sent the manuscript to Nikolaus Selnecker to obtain his aid for publication in Leipzig. Selnecker, to his regret, could not find a publisher either. His opinion was: “Those beautiful songs are full of comfort and would refresh many Christians.” So the dust of centuries was allowed to accumulate on the manuscript. However, several hymns, among them the morning hymn “Thy Inmost Heart Now Raises,” were published in Creutzbuechlein, 1585-1587, at Herford. However, because there were no notes in the printery at Herford, the melodies of Nigidius’ own creation, which Selnecker also praised highly, were not included. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Noel, Caroline Maria, 1817-77
Norwegian folk sources
61, 70, 542, 553, 575
Nürnberg Gesang-Buch, 1676
Oakeley, Frederick, 1802-80 and others
Olearius, Johann Gottfried, 1635-1711
OLEARIUS, Johann Gottfried (1635-1711), son of Dr. Gottfried Olearius, was born at Halle, September 25, 1635, was educated at Leipzig and other German universities. In 1658 he was ordained and became assistant to his father at St. Mary’s Church, Halle, later becoming pastor and also superintendent of the second portion of the district of Saale. In 1688 he was made chief pastor, superintendent, and Consistorialrat at Arnstadt and also professor of theology in the gymnasium there. He died at Arnstadt, May 21, 1711, after having been totally blind for several years. He published Jesus! Poetische Ernstlinge in 1664 and Geistliche Singe-Lust in 1697. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Olearius, Johannes, 1611-84
Johannes Olearius was born September 17, 1611, in Halle, where his father, Johann Olearius, was preacher and superintendent. He received his education in Wittenberg, where he took his master’s degree in 1632 and the degree of doctor of theology in 1643. While still a young man he gave lectures at the university, and in 1635 was appointed adjunct of the philosophical faculty. In 1637 Olearius was made superintendent of Querfurt, and in 1643 was appointed to the position of first court preacher and private chaplain in the service of Duke August of Sachsen-Weissenfels, in Halle, where, later on, he became member of the church council and superintendent. When Duke August died, in 1680, the Elector of Brandenburg appointed Olearius superintendent of Weissenfels, where he remained until his death, in 1684.
Olearius was a productive hymn writer. He collected and edited one of the largest hymn books of the 17th century. His Geistliche Singe-Kunst, of which the first edition appeared in Leipzig, 1671, contained 1207 (1218) hymns. Of these, 302 were composed by Olearius. The second edition, published in 1672, contained 1340 hymns. His own hymns are as a rule short, and are written in clear and simple language. Many of his hymns have been translated into English and other languages. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
OLEARIUS, Johannes (1611-1684), was born September 17, 1611, at Halle, graduated from the University of Wittenberg and lectured at that institution, later became chief court-preacher and private chaplain at Halle under Duke August. He was made Kirchenrat in 1657 and General Superintendent in 1664. After the dukes death he held similar appointments at Weissenfels until his own death on April 24, 1684. He was the author of devotional books, a commentary of the entire Bible, and compiler of the Geistliche Singe-Kunst, 1671, the most comprehensive collection of the best German hymns then in existence, the first edition of which contained 302 of his own hymns. Many of these were for times and seasons hitherto unprovided for, and many were speedily adopted into German hymnals. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
24, 93, 102, 256, 404, 460
Olivers, Thomas, 1725-99
OLIVERS, Thomas (1725-1799), was born at Tregynon, near Newton, Montgomeryshire, where he was brought up rather carelessly by relatives and given very little formal education. He. was apprenticed to a shoemaker and seems to have passed his youth in such disrepute that at the age of 18 he was forced to leave his home town. Then Olivers traveled about the country till he came to Bristol, where he heard George Whitefield preach from the text “Is not this a branch plucked out of the fire?” This sermon changed the whole course of his life. He joined the Methodist Society at Bradford-on-Avon and was engaged by Wesley as one of his preachers. He traveled about as an evangelist from October, 1753, to his death in March, 1799, covering about 100,000 miles in the service of the Gospel. Olivers was for a while coeditor with John Wesley and “Corrector of the Press” of the Arminian Magazine. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Olson, Ernst W., 1870-1958
Ernst William Olson was born March 16, 1870, in Skåne, Sweden. Olson’s family emigrated to America in 1875. He attended Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois. He worked for Swedish newspapers, and for a publisher in Chicago, then became editor of the Augustana Book Concern (1911-1949). He wrote four original hymns, and translated almost 30 more. His works include: A History of the Swedes in Illinois. He died: October 6, 1958, in Chicago, Illinois. [The Cyber Hymnal]
Olsson, Olof, 1841-1900
OLSSON, Olof (1841-1900), was born March 31, 1841, in Karlskoga, Vaermland, Sweden. Ordained in 1863, he served as pastor in Sweden until 1869, when he came to America. Here he served as pastor in Lindsborg, Kansas, 1869, was a member of the Kansas Legislature from 1871 to 1872; professor at Augustana College and Seminary, 1876-1888, and became its president in 1891. He organized the Händel Oratorio Society at the college and seminary. He published Vid Korset, Det Christna Hoppet. He died in May, 1900. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Opitz, Martin, 1597-1639
OPITZ, Martin (1597-1639), son of Sebastian Opitz, a butcher, was born December 23, 1597, at Bunzlau, Silesia. Martin entered the University of Frankfort on the Oder in 1618 and in 1619 went to Heidelberg, where he was a private tutor while studying literature and philosophy at the university. When Spanish troops threatened, he left and traveled through Holland, Friesland, and Jutland. In 1622 he became Professor of Philosophy in the Gymnasium founded at Weissenburg in Transylvania by Prince Bethlem Gabor. He resigned in 1623. At the request of Duke Rudolf of Liegnitz-Brieg he versified the Epistles for Sundays and festivals according to the metres of the French Psalter and was rewarded with the title “Rath.” On an embassy to Vienna in 1625 he presented to Emperor Ferdinand II a poem on the death of the Emperor’s brother Grandduke Karl; for this the Emperor crowned him poet and in 1628 raised him to the nobility as Opitz von Boberfeld. For a time he was private secretary to the Burgrave Carl Hannibal von Dohna, who began the Counter Reformation against the Protestants of Silesia in 1628; Opitz wrote poems in praise of him. Three years later Opitz published a translation of the Jesuit Martin Becanus’ controversial For the Conversion of the Erring. On a diplomatic mission to Paris on Dohna’s behalf in 1630 he became acquainted with Hugo Grotius. In 1633 he was sent by Duke Johann Christian of Liegnitz-Brieg as his plenipotentiary to Berlin and also to the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstjerna. Opitz accompanied the Duke to Thorn in 1635 when Wallenstein obtained the mastery over the Silesian duchies. From there Opitz went to Danzig, where in June, 1637, he became historiographer to King Wladislaw IV of Poland. From Danzig Opitz did his best by correspondence and otherwise to atone for the oppression of his brethren in Silesia. On August 20, 1639, three days after being accosted by a diseased beggar, he died of the plague. The author of some 90 works, Opitz was a member of the great German literary union, the Fruit-bearing Society. His great merit was as a reformer of German prosody by his example of literary style and by his Buch der Deutschen Poeterey, published at Breslau, 1624. Herein he laid down the rules of German verse which have given it the form it has to this day. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Osiander, Lukas, 1534-1604
Osler, Edward, 1798-1863
Edward Osler was born 1798, in Falmouth. His parents were Non-Conformists, but their son joined the Episcopal Church. He was educated for the practice of medicine, first under Dr. Carvosse of Falmouth, and later at Guy’s Hospital, London. For a time, from 1836, he was connected with the “Society for the Advancement of Christian Education.” After 16 or 17 years of practice as a physician, he located in 1841 in Truro. Here he began literary activity as editor of the Royal Cornwall Gazette and as author of religious and secular writings in poetry and prose. In 1835 he edited, together with the preacher, W. J. Hall, Mitre Hymn Book. This contained 50 of Osler’s hymns. He died March 7, 1863, in Truro. [Dahle, Library of Christian Hymns]
OSLER, Edward (1798-1863), was born at Falmouth, in January, 1798, and was educated for the medical profession. His hymnological work is mainly connected with the Mitre Hymn Book. During 1835-1836 he was associated with W. J. Hall the editor, in producing that collection which was published in 1836 as Psalms and Hymns Adapted to the Service of the Church of England. He was active in the work of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and was editor of the Royal Cornwall Gazette. He died in 1863. [Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal]
Oudaen, Joachim, 1685
Oude en Nieuwe Hollantse Boern, 1710
Owen, William, 1814-93